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      TOXICIDAD DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO, ETANÓLICO Y HEXÁNICO de Annona muricata, Minthostachys mollis, Lupinus mutabilis, Y Chenopodium quinoa SOBRE Tetranychus urticae Y Chrysoperla externa Translated title: TOXICITY OF AQUEOUS, ETHANOLIC AND HEXANIC EXTRACTS OF Annona muricata, Minthostachys mollis, Lupinus mutabilis, AND Chenopodium quinoa AGAINST Tetranychus urticae AND Chrysoperla externa

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN La evaluación de la compatibilidad entre los extractos de plantas con propiedades insecticidas y el control biológico de plagas es esencial en estrategias de manejo integrado de plagas. Se evaluó la toxicidad de los extractos acuosos, etanólicos y hexánicos de las hojas de Minthostachys mollis Kunth) Griseb, "muña" y semillas de Annona muricata L. "guanábana", Lupinus mutabilis Sweet, "tarwi" y Chenopodium quinoa Willd "quinua", sobre hembras adultas del ácaro Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 "arañita roja", y larvas del primer instar de Chrysoperla externa Hagen, 1861 "león de áfidos". Se emplearon dos concentraciones, 10 y 20%, en un periodo de exposición de 24 y 72 h. Los parámetros de toxicidad se observaron en los valores NOEC (Concentración sin efecto observado) y LOEC (Concentración más baja con efecto observado). El extracto acuoso de M. mollis y el etanólico de C. quinoa, ambos al 20% de concentración, causaron mortalidades en T. urticae de 28,9 y 29,6%, respectivamente. El extracto etanólico de M. mollis registró la mayor toxicidad de todos los extractos evaluados a las 72 h de exposición en C. externa, con una mortalidad del 75,7%. Según el cociente relativo de riesgo de selectividad (CRRS) obtenido a las 48 h de exposición, los extractos acuosos no representaron un riesgo de toxicidad en C. externa. El extracto acuoso de M. mollis y el extracto etanólico de C. quinoa, ambos al 20% de concentración, podrían ser usados en un programa de manejo integrado de T. urticae.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT The assessment of the compatibility of plant extracts that have insecticidal properties with pest biological control is essential for the development in integrated pest management strategies. Toxicity of aqueous, ethanolic and hexanic extracts of leaves of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb, "muña", and seeds of Annona muricata L. "soursop", Lupinus mutabilis Sweet "tarwi" and Chenopodium quinoa Willd "quinua" were evaluated against adult females of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836, and first instar larvae of green lacewing Chrysoperla externa Hagen, 1861. The extracts were applied at concentrations of 10 and 20% with exposure periods of 24 and 72 h. The parameters of toxicity were observed in the NOEC (no observed effect concentration) and LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) values. Both the aqueous extract of M. mollis and the ethanolic extract of C. quinoa at a concentration of 20% resulted in mortality rates of 28.9 and 29.6% of T. urticae, respectively. The ethanol extract of M. mollis recorded the highest toxicity against C. externa of all extracts evaluated after a 72 h-exposure, with a mortality of 75.7%. According to the RCRS (relative quotient risk of selectivity) obtained at 48 h of exposure, the aqueous extracts did not show toxicity against C. externa. The aqueous M. mollis extract and C. quinoa ethanolic extract at a concentration of 20% could be used in an integrated T. urticae management program.

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          Acaricide resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and other important Acari: a review.

          The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is one of the economically most important pests in a wide range of outdoor and protected crops worldwide. Its control has been and still is largely based on the use of insecticides and acaricides. However, due to its short life cycle, abundant progeny and arrhenotokous reproduction, it is able to develop resistance to these compounds very rapidly. As a consequence, it has the dubious reputation to be the"most resistant species" in terms of the total number of pesticides to which populations have become resistant, and its control has become problematic in many areas worldwide. Insecticide and acaricide resistance has also been reported in the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei, the causative organism of scabies, and other economically important Acari, such as the Southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus, one of the biggest arthropod threats to livestock, and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, a major economic burden for beekeepers worldwide. Although resistance research in Acari has not kept pace with that in insects, a number of studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistant phenotype has been conducted recently. In this review, state-of-the-art information on T. urticae resistance, supplemented with data on other important Acari has been brought together. Considerable attention is given to the underlying resistance mechanisms that have been elucidated at the molecular level. The incidence of bifenazate resistance in T. urticae is expanded as an insecticide resistance evolutionary paradigm in arthropods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

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              Identification and biological activities of triterpenoid saponins from Chenopodium quinoa.

              At least 16 saponins were detected in the seeds of Chenopodium quinoa. The 5 previously isolated major saponins, 3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl phytolaccagenic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl phytolaccagenic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and the new saponin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl phytolaccagenic acid were isolated and characterized using mainly NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. The antifungal activity against Candida albicans and hemolytic activity on erythrocytes of these compounds and derived monodesmosides were evaluated. Both bidesmosides and derived monodesmosides showed little or no antifungal activity, whereas a comparatively higher degree of hemolytic activity could be determined for monodesmosides.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                chjaasc
                Chilean journal of agricultural & animal sciences
                Chil. j. agric. anim. sci.
                Universidad de Concepción. Facultad de Agronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería Agricola y Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias (Chillán, , Chile )
                0719-3882
                0719-3890
                2017
                : 33
                : 3
                : 273-284
                Affiliations
                [1] Lima Lima orgnameUniversidad Ricardo Palma orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas orgdiv2Laboratorio de Parasitología Peru
                [3] Lima Lima orgnameUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos orgdiv1Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica Peru
                [2] Lima Lima orgnameUniversidad Nacional Federico Villarreal orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática orgdiv2Laboratorio de Ecología y Biodiversidad Animal Peru
                Article
                S0719-38902017000300273
                01c378e2-3854-4af3-b2cd-0860bc5ec23d

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 14 February 2017
                : 29 August 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 47, Pages: 12
                Product

                SciELO Chile


                toxicidad,bioensayos,plaguicidas botánicos,león de áfidos,Two spotted mite,bioassays,botanical pesticides,lion aphid,toxicity,Arañita roja

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