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      Needle Stick Injuries and their Related Safety Measures among Nurses in a University Hospital, Shiraz, Iran

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          This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors related to needle stick injuries (NSIs) and to assess related safety measures among a sample of Iranian nurses.


          In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 168 registered active nurses was selected from different wards of one of the hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS). Data were collected by an anonymous questionnaire and a checklist based observational method among the 168 registered active nurses.


          The prevalence of NSIs in the total of work experience and the last year was 76% and 54%, respectively. Hollow-bore needles were the most common devices involved in the injuries (85.5%). The majority of NSIs occurred in the morning shift (57.8%) and the most common activity leading to NSIs was recapping needles (41.4%). The rate of underreporting NSIs was 60.2% and the major reasons for not reporting the NSIs were heavy clinical schedule (46.7%) and perception of low risk of infection (37.7%). A statistically significant relationship was found between the occurrence of NSIs and sex, hours worked/week, and frequency of shifts/month.


          The study showed a high prevalence of NSIs among nurses. Supportive measures such as improving injection practices, modification of working schedule, planning training programs targeted at using personal protective equipment, and providing an adequate number of safety facilities such as puncture resistant disposal containers and engineered safe devices are essential for the effective prevention of NSI incidents among the studied nurses.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to contaminated sharps injuries among health-care workers.

          The global burden of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection due to percutaneous injuries among health care workers (HCWs) is estimated. The incidence of infections attributable to percutaneous injuries in 14 geographical regions on the basis of the probability of injury, the prevalence of infection, the susceptibility of the worker, and the percutaneous transmission potential are modeled. The model also provides the attributable fractions of infection in HCWs. Overall, 16,000 HCV, 66,000 HBV, and 1,000 HIV infections may have occurred in the year 2000 worldwide among HCWs due to their occupational exposure to percutaneous injuries. The fraction of infections with HCV, HBV, and HIV in HCWs attributable to occupational exposure to percutaneous injuries fraction reaches 39%, 37%, and 4.4% respectively. Occupational exposures to percutaneous injuries are substantial source of infections with bloodborne pathogens among health-care workers (HCWs). These infections are highly preventable and should be eliminated. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Preventing needlestick injuries among healthcare workers: a WHO-ICN collaboration.

            Effective measures to prevent infections from occupaonal exposure of healthcare workers to blood include mmunization against HBV, eliminating unnecessary injections, implementing Universal Precautions, eliminating needle recapping and disposing of the sharp into a sharps container immediately after use, use of safer devices such as needles that sheath or retract after use, provision and use of personal protective equipment, and training workers in the risks and prevention of transmission. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral medications can reduce the risk of HIV transmission by 80%. In 2003, the World Health Organization and the International Council of Nurses launched a pilot project in three countries to protect healthcare workers from needlestick injuries. The results of the pilot will be disseminated worldwide, along with best policies and practices for prevention.
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              Needle stick injuries among nurses in sub-Saharan Africa.

              Despite a heavy burden of HIV/AIDS and other blood borne infections, few studies have investigated needle stick injuries in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional study at Mulago national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda, to assess the occurrence and risk factors of needle stick injuries among nurses and midwives. A total of 526 nurses and midwives involved in the direct day-to-day management of patients answered a questionnaire inquiring about occurrence of needle stick injuries and about potential predictors, including work experience, work load, working habits, training, and risk behaviour. A 57% of the nurses and midwives had experienced at least one needle stick injury in the last year. Only 18% had not experienced any such injury in their entire career. The rate of needle stick injuries was 4.2 per person-year. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the most important risk factor for needle stick injuries was lack of training on such injuries (OR 5.72, 95% CI 3.41-9.62). Other important risk factors included working for more than 40 h/week (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.20-3.31), recapping needles most of the time (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.11-2.86), and not using gloves when handling needles (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.10-3.32). The study showed a high rate of needle stick injuries among nurses and midwives working in Uganda. The strongest predictor for needle stick injuries was lack of training. Other important risk factors were related to long working hours, working habits, and experience.

                Author and article information

                Saf Health Work
                Saf Health Work
                Safety and Health at Work
                Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
                04 August 2015
                March 2016
                04 August 2015
                : 7
                : 1
                : 72-77
                [1 ]Department of Occupational Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                [2 ]Department of Occupational Health, Ashtian Health Care Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
                [3 ]Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Department of Occupational Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, School of Health, Koy-e-Zahra Street, PO Box: 71645-111, Shiraz, Iran. hobobinaser@
                Copyright © 2015, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Published by Elsevier.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

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