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      Simulium reptans (Linnaeus, 1758) and Simulium reptantoides Carlsson, 1962 from the Balkan Peninsula

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          Abstract

          Simulium reptans (Linnaeus, 1758) and Simulium reptantoides Carlsson, 1962 are two species of the Simulium reptans group whose distribution is unclear because of their confusing taxonomy and systematics. Their genetic variability is well known for populations in northern and central Europe and shows that both species have two forms; however, the genetic variability of these species in southern and eastern Europe is unknown. To identify the status of these two species in southeast Europe, mtDNA was extracted from 19 individuals from 12 localities across the Balkan Peninsula. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the existence of two species with 7.38–7.94% divergence. Each species was comprised of two clades, with 2.31% and 1.43% interclade divergence for S. reptans and S. reptantoides , respectively. This study revealed the presence of both species across the Balkans and that S. reptans occurs in this area in only one form ( S. reptans B), while S. reptantoides is found in two genetic forms (A and B).

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          Most cited references 17

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          Phylogenetic star contraction applied to Asian and Papuan mtDNA evolution.

          In the past decade, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 826 representative East Asians and Papuans has been typed by high-resolution (14-enzyme) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Compared with mtDNA control region sequencing, RFLP typing of the complete human mitochondrial DNA generally yields a cleaner phylogeny, the nodes of which can be dated assuming a molecular clock. We present here a novel star contraction algorithm which rigorously identifies starlike nodes (clusters) diagnostic of prehistoric demographic expansions. Applied to the Asian and Papuan data, we date the out-of-Africa migration of the ancestral mtDNA types that founded all Eurasian (including Papuan) lineages at 54,000 years. While the proto-Papuan mtDNA continued expanding at this time along a southern route to Papua New Guinea, the proto-Eurasian mtDNA appears to have drifted genetically and does not show any comparable demographic expansion until 30,000 years ago. By this time, the East Asian, Indian, and European mtDNA pools seem to have separated from each other, as postulated by the weak Garden of Eden model. The east Asian expansion entered America about 25,000 years ago, but was then restricted on both sides of the Pacific to more southerly latitudes during the Last Glacial Maximum around 20,000 years ago, coinciding with a chronological gap in our expansion dates. Repopulation of northern Asian latitudes occurred after the Last Glacial Maximum, obscuring the ancestral Asian gene pool of Amerinds.
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            Evolution, epidemiology, and population genetics of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae).

            More than 2000 species of black flies feed on vertebrate blood; 1.5% of all species are vectors of pathogens that cause human diseases. Of nine simuliid-borne animal diseases, only two, mansonellosis and onchocerciasis, afflict humans. Onchocerciasis is a debilitating disease infecting an estimated 40 million people in Africa, Latin America, and Yemen, whereas mansonellosis is a mild disease in the Neotropics. Cytogenetic studies of natural populations of more than 500 species of black flies have revealed that the classic morphospecies of taxonomists is typically a complex of two or more reproductively isolated entities, or sibling (cryptic) species. Most vectors of human pathogens are sibling species, each ecologically unique in traits such as breeding habitats, dispersal capabilities, and degree of vector competence. We review the evolution of black flies, the cytogenetics that have revealed about 260 cytologically distinct entities, the molecular studies that continue to expose additional hidden biodiversity, and a case study of the epidemiology of the Simulium damnosum complex, the largest species complex of blood-feeding arthropods on Earth and the premier group of black flies responsible for human onchocerciasis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Identification of Nearctic black flies using DNA barcodes (Diptera: Simuliidae).

              DNA barcoding has gained increased recognition as a molecular tool for species identification in various groups of organisms. In this preliminary study, we tested the efficacy of a 615-bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) as a DNA barcode in the medically important family Simuliidae, or black flies. A total of 65 (25%) morphologically distinct species and sibling species in species complexes of the 255 recognized Nearctic black fly species were used to create a preliminary barcode profile for the family. Genetic divergence among congeners averaged 14.93% (range 2.83-15.33%), whereas intraspecific genetic divergence between morphologically distinct species averaged 0.72% (range 0-3.84%). DNA barcodes correctly identified nearly 100% of the morphologically distinct species (87% of the total sampled taxa), whereas in species complexes (13% of the sampled taxa) maximum values of divergence were comparatively higher (max. 4.58-6.5%), indicating cryptic diversity. The existence of sibling species in Prosimulium travisi and P. neomacropyga was also demonstrated, thus confirming previous cytological evidence about the existence of such cryptic diversity in these two taxa. We conclude that DNA barcoding is an effective method for species identification and discovery of cryptic diversity in black flies. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                25 March 2020
                : 922
                : 141-155
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Hydroecology and Water Protection, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković” – National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia
                [2 ] Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Studentski Trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
                [3 ] Bioinformatics Solution Center, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jelena Đuknić ( jelena.djuknic@ 123456ibiss.bg.ac.rs )

                Academic editor: Art Borkent

                Article
                49306
                10.3897/zookeys.922.49306
                7118442
                Jelena Đuknić, Vladimir M. Jovanović, Jelena Čanak Atlagić, Stefan Andjus, Momir Paunović, Ivana Živić, Nataša Popović

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Diptera
                Simuliidae
                Genetics
                Systematics
                Europe

                Animal science & Zoology

                southeast europe, genetic variability, simuliidae

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