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      Transabdominal ultrasonographic measurement of caudal vena cava to aorta derived ratios in clinically healthy neonatal foals


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          Ultrasonographic measurement of the vena cava and aorta (Ao) diameters and their ratios have been suggested to be a reliable way of quantifying hypovolemia.


          To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of an ultrasonographic technique for measurement of Ao and caudal vena cava (CVC) and derived ratios using three different acoustic windows in a population of healthy neonatal foals. Correlation between Ao and CVC measurements and ratios and foals' age or bodyweight were also investigated.


          In 14 healthy foals aged less than 7 days, the diameters of the Ao and of the CVC in long and short axis were measured by two observers from images obtained using three different ultrasonographic imaging planes (left dorsal, left ventral and right views). The Ao and CVC cross‐sectional area and the CVC/Ao diameter and area ratios were calculated. Image quality was subjectively assessed. Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities for image quality scores and measurements were evaluated between the two observers. Simple linear regression models were used to identify correlations between the CVC/Ao measurements and ratios and the age and bodyweight of the foals.


          The left ventral view showed the highest reliability. A correlation between bodyweight and the short axis measurement of the CVC was found ( R 2 = 0.385; p = 0.018). Age was positively correlated with the long axis of measurement of the CVC ( R 2 = 0.426; p = 0.011) and CVC/Ao diameter ratio ( R 2 = 0.625; p = 0.001).


          The left ventral view allows the Ao and CVC cross sections to be easily visualized and measured in neonatal foals in right lateral recumbency.


          The present study evaluated the feasibility and reliability of an ultrasonographic technique for measurement of Ao and CVC and derived ratios using three different acoustic windows in a population of healthy neonatal foals. A left ventral view of the abdomen allowed for rapid imaging and measurement of the cross‐sectional diameter of both the aorta and the CVC in neonate foals in lateral recumbency, and might be a promising method to quantitatively assess the degree of hypovolemia.

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          Most cited references 33

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          A Guideline of Selecting and Reporting Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for Reliability Research.

           Terry Koo (corresponding) ,  Mae Li (2016)
          Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is a widely used reliability index in test-retest, intrarater, and interrater reliability analyses. This article introduces the basic concept of ICC in the content of reliability analysis.
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            Interrater reliability: the kappa statistic

             Mary L McHugh (2012)
            The kappa statistic is frequently used to test interrater reliability. The importance of rater reliability lies in the fact that it represents the extent to which the data collected in the study are correct representations of the variables measured. Measurement of the extent to which data collectors (raters) assign the same score to the same variable is called interrater reliability. While there have been a variety of methods to measure interrater reliability, traditionally it was measured as percent agreement, calculated as the number of agreement scores divided by the total number of scores. In 1960, Jacob Cohen critiqued use of percent agreement due to its inability to account for chance agreement. He introduced the Cohen’s kappa, developed to account for the possibility that raters actually guess on at least some variables due to uncertainty. Like most correlation statistics, the kappa can range from −1 to +1. While the kappa is one of the most commonly used statistics to test interrater reliability, it has limitations. Judgments about what level of kappa should be acceptable for health research are questioned. Cohen’s suggested interpretation may be too lenient for health related studies because it implies that a score as low as 0.41 might be acceptable. Kappa and percent agreement are compared, and levels for both kappa and percent agreement that should be demanded in healthcare studies are suggested.
              • Record: found
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              A Coefficient of Agreement for Nominal Scales


                Author and article information

                Vet Med Sci
                Vet Med Sci
                Veterinary Medicine and Science
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                03 May 2021
                September 2021
                : 7
                : 5 ( doiID: 10.1002/vms3.v7.5 )
                : 1451-1459
                [ 1 ] Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production University of Naples Federico II Naples Italy
                [ 2 ] Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences University of Bologna Bologna Italy
                [ 3 ] School of Veterinary Medicine and Science Sutton Bonington Campus University of Nottingham Leicestershire UK
                [ 4 ] Private Practitioner Naples Italy
                [ 5 ] Health Science and Technologies Interdepartmental Center for Industrial Research (HST‐ICIR) University of Bologna Bologna Italy
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Francesca Freccero, Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50‐ 40064‐Ozzano dell'Emilia (BO), Italy.

                Email: francesca.freccero2@ 123456unibo.it

                © 2021 The Authors Veterinary Medicine and Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 3, Pages: 0, Words: 12771
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                September 2021
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.0.8 mode:remove_FC converted:25.09.2021


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