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      Abrupt CO2 release to the atmosphere under glacial and early interglacial climate conditions

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          Abstract

          Pulse-like carbon dioxide release to the atmosphere on centennial time scales has only been identified for the most recent glacial and deglacial periods and is thought to be absent during warmer climate conditions. Here, we present a high-resolution carbon dioxide record from 330,000 to 450,000 years before present, revealing pronounced carbon dioxide jumps (CDJ) under cold and warm climate conditions. CDJ come in two varieties that we attribute to invigoration or weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and associated northward and southward shifts of the intertropical convergence zone, respectively. We find that CDJ are pervasive features of the carbon cycle that can occur during interglacial climate conditions if land ice masses are sufficiently extended to be able to disturb the AMOC by freshwater input.

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          High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present.

          Changes in past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations can be determined by measuring the composition of air trapped in ice cores from Antarctica. So far, the Antarctic Vostok and EPICA Dome C ice cores have provided a composite record of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the past 650,000 years. Here we present results of the lowest 200 m of the Dome C ice core, extending the record of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by two complete glacial cycles to 800,000 yr before present. From previously published data and the present work, we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide is strongly correlated with Antarctic temperature throughout eight glacial cycles but with significantly lower concentrations between 650,000 and 750,000 yr before present. Carbon dioxide levels are below 180 parts per million by volume (p.p.m.v.) for a period of 3,000 yr during Marine Isotope Stage 16, possibly reflecting more pronounced oceanic carbon storage. We report the lowest carbon dioxide concentration measured in an ice core, which extends the pre-industrial range of carbon dioxide concentrations during the late Quaternary by about 10 p.p.m.v. to 172-300 p.p.m.v.
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            Heinrich events: Massive late Pleistocene detritus layers of the North Atlantic and their global climate imprint

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              Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                August 20 2020
                August 21 2020
                August 20 2020
                August 21 2020
                : 369
                : 6506
                : 1000-1005
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
                [2 ]Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
                [3 ]Godwin Laboratory for Palaeoclimate Research, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
                [4 ]Institute of Environmental Geosciences (IGE), Grenoble INP, IRD, CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.
                [5 ]Laboratory for Air Pollution/Environmental Technology, Empa–Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
                Article
                10.1126/science.aay8178
                32820127
                01d6331f-bb0d-4380-9173-b5ce9efbdc15
                © 2020

                https://www.sciencemag.org/about/science-licenses-journal-article-reuse

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