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      A Review on Real-Time 3D Ultrasound Imaging Technology

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      1 , 2 , * , 1
      BioMed Research International
      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Real-time three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) has attracted much more attention in medical researches because it provides interactive feedback to help clinicians acquire high-quality images as well as timely spatial information of the scanned area and hence is necessary in intraoperative ultrasound examinations. Plenty of publications have been declared to complete the real-time or near real-time visualization of 3D ultrasound using volumetric probes or the routinely used two-dimensional (2D) probes. So far, a review on how to design an interactive system with appropriate processing algorithms remains missing, resulting in the lack of systematic understanding of the relevant technology. In this article, previous and the latest work on designing a real-time or near real-time 3D ultrasound imaging system are reviewed. Specifically, the data acquisition techniques, reconstruction algorithms, volume rendering methods, and clinical applications are presented. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of state-of-the-art approaches are discussed in detail.

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          Most cited references102

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          High-speed ultrasound volumetric imaging system. II. Parallel processing and image display.

          For pt.I see ibid., vol.38, no.2, p.100-8 (1991). The authors describe the design, application, and evaluation of parallel processing to the high-speed volumetric ultrasound imaging system. The scanner produces images analogous to an optical camera or the human eye and supplies more information than conventional sonograms. Potential medical applications include improved anatomic visualization, tumor localization, and better assessment of cardiac function. The system uses pulse-echo phased array principles to steer a 2-D array transducer of 289 elements in a pyramidal scan format. Parallel processing in the receive mode produces 4992 scan lines at a rate of approximately 8 frames/s. Echo data for the scanned volume is presented online as projection images with depth perspective, stereoscopic pairs, or multiple tomographic images. The authors also describe the techniques developed for the online display of volumetric images on a conventional CRT oscilloscope and show preliminary volumetric images for each display mode.
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            Rapid calibration for 3-D freehand ultrasound.

            3-D freehand ultrasound is a new imaging technique that is rapidly finding clinical applications. A position-sensing device is attached to a conventional ultrasound probe so that, as B-scans are acquired, they can be labelled with their relative positions and orientations. This allows a 3-D data set to be constructed from the B-scans. A key requirement of all freehand imaging systems is calibration; that is, determining the position and orientation of the B-scan with respect to the position sensor. This is typically a lengthy and tedious process that may need repeating every time a sensor is mounted on a probe. This paper describes a new calibration technique that takes only a few minutes to perform and produces results that compare favourably (in terms of both accuracy and precision) with previously published alternatives.
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              3-D ultrasound imaging: a review

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2017
                26 March 2017
                : 2017
                : 6027029
                Affiliations
                1School of Electronic and Information Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China
                2College of Information Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Kevin M. Coombs

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1080-6940
                Article
                10.1155/2017/6027029
                5385255
                28459067
                01d7e5af-0cc6-4ece-a47f-3f4a6ad992c8
                Copyright © 2017 Qinghua Huang and Zhaozheng Zeng.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 9 September 2016
                : 7 March 2017
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 61372007
                Award ID: 61571193
                Funded by: Guangdong Provincial Science and Technology Program-International Collaborative Projects
                Award ID: 2014A050503020
                Funded by: Guangzhou Key Lab of Body Data Science
                Award ID: 201605030011
                Categories
                Review Article

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