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      A Review of Dietary Supplement–Induced Renal Dysfunction

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      Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

      American Society of Nephrology (ASN)

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          Abstract

          Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a multibillion-dollar industry. Almost half of the American population uses some form of CAM, with many using them in addition to prescription medications. Most patients fail to inform their health care providers of their CAM use, and physicians rarely inquire. Annually, thousands of dietary supplement-induced adverse events are reported to Poison Control Centers nationwide. CAM manufacturers are not responsible for proving safety and efficacy, because the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate them. However, concern exists surrounding the safety of CAM. A literature search using MEDLINE and EMBASE was undertaken to explore the impact of CAM on renal function. English-language studies and case reports were selected for inclusion but were limited to those that consisted of human subjects, both adult and pediatric. This review provides details on dietary supplements that have been associated with renal dysfunction and focuses on 17 dietary supplements that have been associated with direct renal injury, CAM-induced immune-mediated nephrotoxicity, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis with acute renal injury, and hepatorenal syndrome. It is concluded that it is imperative that use of dietary supplements be monitored closely in all patients. Health care practitioners must take an active role in identifying patients who are using CAM and provide appropriate patient education.

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          Most cited references 71

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          Urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia fangchi)

          Chinese-herb nephropathy is a progressive form of renal fibrosis that develops in some patients who take weight-reducing pills containing Chinese herbs. Because of a manufacturing error, one of the herbs in these pills (Stephania tetrandra) was inadvertently replaced by Aristolochia fangchi, which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. The diagnosis of a neoplastic lesion in the native urinary tract of a renal-transplant recipient who had Chinese-herb nephropathy prompted us to propose regular cystoscopic examinations and the prophylactic removal of the native kidneys and ureters in all our patients with end-stage Chinese-herb nephropathy who were being treated with either transplantation or dialysis. Surgical specimens were examined histologically and analyzed for the presence of DNA adducts formed by aristolochic acid. All prescriptions written for Chinese-herb weight-reducing compounds during the period of exposure (1990 to 1992) in these patients were obtained, and the cumulative doses were calculated. Among 39 patients who agreed to undergo prophylactic surgery, there were 18 cases of urothelial carcinoma (prevalence, 46 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, 29 to 62 percent): 17 cases of carcinoma of the ureter, renal pelvis, or both and 1 papillary bladder tumor. Nineteen of the remaining patients had mild-to-moderate urothelial dysplasia, and two had normal urothelium. All tissue samples analyzed contained aristolochic acid-related DNA adducts. The cumulative dose of aristolochia was a significant risk factor for urothelial carcinoma, with total doses of more than 200 g associated with a higher risk of urothelial carcinoma. The prevalence of urothelial carcinoma among patients with end-stage Chinese-herb nephropathy (caused by aristolochia species) is a high.
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            Long-term trends in the use of complementary and alternative medical therapies in the United States.

            Although recent research has shown that many people in the United States use complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies, little is known about time trends in use. To present data on time trends in CAM therapy use in the United States over the past half-century. Nationally representative telephone survey of 2055 respondents that obtained information on current use, lifetime use, and age at first use for 20 CAM therapies. The 48 contiguous U.S. states. Household residents 18 years of age and older. Retrospective self-reports of age at first use for each of 20 CAM therapies. Previously reported analyses of these data showed that more than one third of the U.S. population was currently using CAM therapy in the year of the interview (1997). Subsequent analyses of lifetime use and age at onset showed that 67.6% of respondents had used at least one CAM therapy in their lifetime. Lifetime use steadily increased with age across three age cohorts: Approximately 3 of every 10 respondents in the pre-baby boom cohort, 5 of 10 in the baby boom cohort, and 7 of 10 in the post-baby boom cohort reported using some type of CAM therapy by age 33 years. Of respondents who ever used a CAM therapy, nearly half continued to use many years later. A wide range of individual CAM therapies increased in use over time, and the growth was similar across all major sociodemographic sectors of the study sample. Use of CAM therapies by a large proportion of the study sample is the result of a secular trend that began at least a half century ago. This trend suggests a continuing demand for CAM therapies that will affect health care delivery for the foreseeable future.
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              Rhabdomyolysis: a review.

              Rhabdomyolysis, a syndrome of skeletal muscle breakdown with leakage of muscle contents, is frequently accompanied by myoglobinuria, and if sufficiently severe, acute renal failure with potentially life-threatening metabolic derangements may ensue. A diverse spectrum of inherited and acquired disorders affecting muscle membranes, membrane ion channels, and muscle energy supply causes rhabdomyolysis. Common final pathophysiological mechanisms among these causes of rhabdomyolysis include an uncontrolled rise in free intracellular calcium and activation of calcium-dependent proteases, which lead to destruction of myofibrils and lysosomal digestion of muscle fiber contents. Recent advances in molecular genetics and muscle enzyme histochemistry may enable a specific metabolic diagnosis in many patients with idiopathic recurrent rhabdomyolysis. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
                CJASN
                American Society of Nephrology (ASN)
                1555-9041
                1555-905X
                June 27 2007
                July 2007
                July 2007
                May 30 2007
                : 2
                : 4
                : 757-765
                Article
                10.2215/CJN.00500107
                17699493
                © 2007

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