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      Evaluation of Wound-Healing Activity of Hydrogel Extract of Sansevieria trifasciata Leaves (Asparagaceae)


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          For centuries, communities have used medicinal plants to treat various diseases, such as Sansevieria trifasciata (Asparagaceae), for wound healing. However, a study on the wound-healing activity of this plant has not been conducted. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hydrogel formulations of S. trifasciata extract (HESt) and its activity in wound healing. The HESt formulations were subjected to physical examination, pH measurement, spreading coefficient, rheological study, stability test, and wound-healing activity. Furthermore, the HPMC and carbopol 940 gel-forming agents were used to obtain this formulation. In the incision wound model, the experiment was divided into 5 groups, each consisting of 4 mice. Groups 1 and 2 served as a negative and positive control (octenidine gel), while 3, 4, and 5 were given HESt formulations of 15%, 20%, and 25% (w/w), respectively, for 15 days. Based on the wound healing activity test, HESt 20% and 25% (w/w) groups showed significant ( p< 0.05) wound closure area on day 4 and from day 2 to 16. However, the HESt 15% (w/w) group showed no significant difference in wound-healing activity but had a higher closure than the negative control. Based on the evaluation of the hydrogel, all HESt formulations were reported to have fulfilled the standard requirements. The HESt formulations were also reported to be stable at various temperatures in the stability test. Therefore, S. trifasciata leaves extract has the potential to be developed as a wound-healing drug derived from herbal plants formulated into hydrogel preparations.

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          Wound healing - A literature review*

          Regeneration and tissue repair processes consist of a sequence of molecular and cellular events which occur after the onset of a tissue lesion in order to restore the damaged tissue. The exsudative, proliferative, and extracellular matrix remodeling phases are sequential events that occur through the integration of dynamic processes involving soluble mediators, blood cells, and parenchymal cells. Exsudative phenomena that take place after injury contribute to the development of tissue edema. The proliferative stage seeks to reduce the area of tissue injury by contracting myofibroblasts and fibroplasia. At this stage, angiogenesis and reepithelialization processes can still be observed. Endothelial cells are able to differentiate into mesenchymal components, and this difference appears to be finely orchestrated by a set of signaling proteins that have been studied in the literature. This pathway is known as Hedgehog. The purpose of this review is to describe the various cellular and molecular aspects involved in the skin healing process.
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            Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids

            Inflammation plays a key role in diseases such as diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Diet can influence different stages of inflammation and can have an important impact on several inflammatory diseases. Increasing scientific evidence has shown that polyphenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, which are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, or cocoa, can have anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have demonstrated that flavonoids can inhibit regulatory enzymes or transcription factors important for controlling mediators involved in inflammation. Flavonoids are also known as potent antioxidants with the potential to attenuate tissue damage or fibrosis. Consequently, numerous studies in vitro and in animal models have found that flavonoids have the potential to inhibit the onset and development of inflammatory diseases. In the present review, we focused in flavonoids, the most abundant polyphenols in the diet, to give an overview of the most recent scientific knowledge about their impact on different inflammatory diseases.
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              Antibacterial Activity of Terpenes and Terpenoids Present in Essential Oils

              Background: The antimicrobial activity of essential oils has been reported in hundreds of studies, however, the great majority of these studies attribute the activity to the most prevalent compounds without analyzing them independently. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the antibacterial activity of 33 free terpenes commonly found in essential oils and evaluate the cellular ultrastructure to verify possible damage to the cellular membrane. Methods: Screening was performed to select substances with possible antimicrobial activity, then the minimal inhibitory concentrations, bactericidal activity and 24-h time-kill curve studies were evaluated by standard protocols. In addition, the ultrastructure of control and death bacteria were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Only 16 of the 33 compounds had antimicrobial activity at the initial screening. Eugenol exhibited rapid bactericidal action against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (2 h). Terpineol showed excellent bactericidal activity against S. aureus strains. Carveol, citronellol and geraniol presented a rapid bactericidal effect against E. coli. Conclusions: The higher antimicrobial activity was related to the presence of hydroxyl groups (phenolic and alcohol compounds), whereas hydrocarbons resulted in less activity. The first group, such as carvacrol, l-carveol, eugenol, trans-geraniol, and thymol, showed higher activity when compared to sulfanilamide. Images obtained by scanning electron microscopy indicate that the mechanism causing the cell death of the evaluated bacteria is based on the loss of cellular membrane integrity of function. The present study brings detailed knowledge about the antimicrobial activity of the individual compounds present in essential oils, that can provide a greater understanding for the future researches.

                Author and article information

                Adv Pharmacol Pharm Sci
                Adv Pharmacol Pharm Sci
                Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences
                29 August 2023
                : 2023
                : 7680518
                1Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Buana Perjuangan Karawang, Karawang, West Java, Indonesia
                2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Garut, Garut, West Java, Indonesia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Mohamed Addi

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Nia Yuniarsih et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 12 May 2023
                : 22 June 2023
                : 19 August 2023
                Funded by: Institute of Research and Community Service, Universitas Buana Perjuangan Karawang
                Research Article


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