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      Mycobacterium marinum: a potential immunotherapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

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          The aim of the present study was to investigate the immune response induced by Mycobacterium marinum infection in vitro and the potential of M. marinum as an immunotherapy for M. tuberculosis infection.


          The potential human immune response to certain bacillus infections was investigated in an immune cell-bacillus coculture system in vitro. As a potential novel immunotherapy, M. marinum was studied and compared with two other bacilli, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and live attenuated M. tuberculosis. We examined the changes in both the bacilli and immune cells, especially the time course of the viability of mycobacteria in the coculture system and host immune responses including multinuclear giant cell formation by Wright-Giemsa modified staining, macrophage polarization by cell surface antigen expression, and cytokines/chemokine production by both mRNA expression and protein secretion.


          The M. marinum stimulated coculture group showed more expression of CD209, CD68, CD80, and CD86 than the BCG and M. tuberculosis (an attenuated strain, H37Ra) groups, although the differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, the M. marinum group expressed more interleukin (IL)-1B and IL-12p40 on day 3 (IL-1B: P = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively; IL-12p40: P = 0.001 and 0.011, respectively), a higher level of CXCL10 on day 1 ( P = 0.006 and 0.026, respectively), and higher levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL) 8 and chemokine (C motif) ligand (XCL) 1 on day 3 (CXCL8: P = 0.012 and 0.014, respectively; XCL1: P = 0.000 and 0.000, respectively). The M. marinum stimulated coculture group also secreted more tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 on day 1 (TNF-α: P = 0.000 and 0.000, respectively; IL-1β: P = 0.000 and 0.000, respectively; IL-10: P = 0.002 and 0.019, respectively) and day 3 (TNF-α: P = 0.000 and 0.000, respectively; IL-1β: P = 0.000 and 0.001, respectively; IL-10: P = 0.000 and 0.000, respectively). In addition, the colony-forming units (an index of viability) of M. marinum in the M. marinum stimulated coculture group was significantly less than that of BCG and H37Ra in their corresponding bacillus stimulated groups ( P = 0.037 and 0.013, respectively).


          Our results indicated that M. marinum could be a potentially safe and effective immunotherapy.

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          Most cited references 35

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          IRF5 promotes inflammatory macrophage polarization and TH1-TH17 responses.

          Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the transcription factor IRF5 that lead to higher mRNA expression are associated with many autoimmune diseases. Here we show that IRF5 expression in macrophages was reversibly induced by inflammatory stimuli and contributed to the plasticity of macrophage polarization. High expression of IRF5 was characteristic of M1 macrophages, in which it directly activated transcription of the genes encoding interleukin 12 subunit p40 (IL-12p40), IL-12p35 and IL-23p19 and repressed the gene encoding IL-10. Consequently, those macrophages set up the environment for a potent T helper type 1 (T(H)1)-T(H)17 response. Global gene expression analysis demonstrated that exogenous IRF5 upregulated or downregulated expression of established phenotypic markers of M1 or M2 macrophages, respectively. Our data suggest a critical role for IRF5 in M1 macrophage polarization and define a previously unknown function for IRF5 as a transcriptional repressor.
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            M-1/M-2 macrophages and the Th1/Th2 paradigm.

            Evidence is provided that macrophages can make M-1 or M-2 responses. The concept of M-1/M-2 fomented from observations that macrophages from prototypical Th1 strains (C57BL/6, B10D2) are more easily activated to produce NO with either IFN-gamma or LPS than macrophages from Th2 strains (BALB/c, DBA/2). In marked contrast, LPS stimulates Th2, but not Th1, macrophages to increase arginine metabolism to ornithine. Thus, M-1/M-2 does not simply describe activated or unactivated macrophages, but cells expressing distinct metabolic programs. Because NO inhibits cell division, while ornithine can stimulate cell division (via polyamines), these results also indicate that M-1 and M-2 responses can influence inflammatory reactions in opposite ways. Macrophage TGF-beta1, which inhibits inducible NO synthase and stimulates arginase, appears to play an important role in regulating the balance between M-1 and M-2. M-1/M-2 phenotypes are independent of T or B lymphocytes because C57BL/6 and BALB/c NUDE or SCID macrophages also exhibit M-1/M-2. Indeed, M-1/M-2 proclivities are magnified in NUDE and SCID mice. Finally, C57BL/6 SCID macrophages cause CB6F1 lymphocytes to increase IFN-gamma production, while BALB/c SCID macrophages increase TGF-beta production. Together, the results indicate that M-1- or M-2-dominant macrophage responses can influence whether Th1/Th2 or other types of inflammatory responses occur.
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              Design of polymeric nanoparticles for biomedical delivery applications.

              Polymeric nanoparticles-based therapeutics show great promise in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, due to the flexibility in which their structures can be modified, with intricate definition over their compositions, structures and properties. Advances in polymerization chemistries and the application of reactive, efficient and orthogonal chemical modification reactions have enabled the engineering of multifunctional polymeric nanoparticles with precise control over the architectures of the individual polymer components, to direct their assembly and subsequent transformations into nanoparticles of selective overall shapes, sizes, internal morphologies, external surface charges and functionalizations. In addition, incorporation of certain functionalities can modulate the responsiveness of these nanostructures to specific stimuli through the use of remote activation. Furthermore, they can be equipped with smart components to allow their delivery beyond certain biological barriers, such as skin, mucus, blood, extracellular matrix, cellular and subcellular organelles. This tutorial review highlights the importance of well-defined chemistries, with detailed ties to specific biological hurdles and opportunities, in the design of nanostructures for various biomedical delivery applications.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                29 July 2013
                : 7
                : 669-680
                [1 ]Laboratory of Mycobacterial Disease, Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Skin Diseases and STIs, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Mycology, Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Skin Diseases and STIs, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hong-sheng Wang,Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 12 Jiangwangmiao Street, Nanjing, 210042, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Tel +86 25 8547 8953,Fax +86 25 8541 4477 Email whs33@ 123456vip.sina.com
                © 2013 Tian et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                immunity, immunotherapy, mycobacterium marinum, bacilli


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