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      Effects of Captopril on Cardiac and Renal Damage, and Metabolic Alterations in the Nitric Oxide-Deficient Hypertensive Rat

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          Abstract

          Chronic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis is characterized by increased blood pressure accompanied with both cardiac hypertrophy as well as renal damage. We investigated whether the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril can inhibit the cardiac hypertrophy and reverse the renal failure. We tested the influence of captopril on the nitrate-nitrite (NO<sub>x</sub>) in plasma and heart and kidney tissues. Oxidative stress, in terms of glutathione and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances measured as malondialdehyde, was monitored examining their involvement in the cardioprotective and renoproptective actions. Three groups of Wistar rats were used: untreated group, and rats treated with the NO synthase inhibitor N<sub>w</sub>-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester ( L-NAME) and L-NAME plus captopril (10 mg/kg/day). Systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure (BPs, BPd and BPm respectively) was measured weekly in addition to the heart rate using rat-tail plethysmography. After 3 weeks, L-NAME significantly increased BPs, BPd and BPm. Captopril treatment reversed the increments in pressure back to normal values by the fourth week. ACE inhibition by captopril reverted the L-NAME-induced hypertrophy and inhibited the enzymatic indices of cardiac damage (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase) back to normal values. Furthermore, the NO synthesis inhibition produced renal damage as indicated by significant increase in creatinine. Captopril ameliorated the raised creatinine to normal. Chronic L-NAME treatment increased serum NO<sub>x</sub> levels but concomitant treatment with captopril was without effect.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Chronic blockade of nitric oxide synthesis in the rat produces systemic hypertension and glomerular damage.

          Tonic basal release of nitric oxide (NO) by vascular endothelial cells controls blood pressure (BP) in the basal state. In these studies we investigated the effects of chronic inhibition of basal NO synthesis in the rat for a 2-mo period. Significant systemic hypertension developed in chronically NO-blocked rats compared to controls. Marked renal vasoconstriction was also observed with elevations in glomerular blood pressure (PGC) and reductions in the glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient (Kf). Chronically NO-blocked rats also develop proteinuria and glomerular sclerotic injury compared to controls. These studies therefore describe a new model of systemic hypertension with glomerular capillary hypertension and renal disease due to chronic blockade of endogenous NO synthesis. These observations highlight the importance of the endogenous NO system in control of normal vascular tone and suggest that hypertensive states may result from relative NO deficiency.
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            Overexpression of angiotensin II type I receptor in cardiomyocytes induces cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling.

            Angiotensin II (AII) is a major determinant of arterial pressure and volume homeostasis, mainly because of its vascular action via the AII type 1 receptor (AT1R). AII has also been implicated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy because angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors and AT1R antagonists prevent or regress ventricular hypertrophy in animal models and in human. However, because these treatments impede the action of AII at cardiac as well as vascular levels, and reduce blood pressure, it has been difficult to determine whether AII action on the heart is direct or a consequence of pressure-overload. To determine whether AII can induce cardiac hypertrophy directly via myocardial AT1R in the absence of vascular changes, transgenic mice overexpressing the human AT1R under the control of the mouse alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter were generated. Cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of AT1R induced, in basal conditions, morphologic changes of myocytes and nonmyocytes that mimic those observed during the development of cardiac hypertrophy in human and in other mammals. These mice displayed significant cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling with increased expression of ventricular atrial natriuretic factor and interstitial collagen deposition and died prematurely of heart failure. Neither the systolic blood pressure nor the heart rate were changed. The data demonstrate a direct myocardial role for AII in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure and provide a useful model to elucidate the mechanisms of action of AII in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases.
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              • Article: not found

              A continuous spectrophotometric assay for angiotensin converting enzyme.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2005
                December 2005
                27 December 2005
                : 28
                : 4
                : 243-250
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                Article
                88829 Kidney Blood Press Res 2005;28:243–250
                10.1159/000088829
                16220007
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 37, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/88829
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Renal damage, ACE inhibitors, Nitric oxide, Cardiac hypertrophy

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