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      Hypoimmunogenic derivatives of induced pluripotent stem cells evade immune rejection in fully immunocompetent allogeneic recipients

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          Most cited references 19

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          An emerging consensus on cardiac regeneration.

          Cardiac regeneration is a rapidly evolving and controversial field of research. The identification some 12 years ago of progenitor cells that reside within the heart spurred enthusiasm for cell-based regenerative therapies. However, recent evidence has called into question both the presence of a biologically important stem cell population in the heart and the ability of exogenously derived cells to promote regeneration through direct formation of new cardiomyocytes. Here, we discuss recent developments that suggest an emerging consensus on the ability of different cell types to regenerate the adult mammalian heart.
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            HLA-E-expressing pluripotent stem cells escape allogeneic responses and lysis by NK cells

            Polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes can cause the rejection of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived products in allogeneic recipients. Disruption of the Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene eliminates surface expression of all class I molecules, but leaves the cells vulnerable to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Here we show that this ‘missing self’ response can be prevented by forced expression of minimally polymorphic HLA-E molecules. We use adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene editing to knock in HLA-E genes at the B2M locus in human PSCs in a manner that confers inducible, regulated, surface expression of HLA-E single-chain dimers (fused to B2M) or trimers (fused to B2M and a peptide antigen), without surface expression of HLA-A, B or C. These HLA-engineered PSCs and their differentiated derivatives are not recognized as allogeneic by CD8+ T cells, do not bind anti-HLA antibodies, and are resistant to NK-mediated lysis. Our approach provides a potential source of universal donor cells for applications where the differentiated derivatives lack HLA class II expression.
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              Development of human CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in human stem cell factor-, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-, and interleukin-3-expressing NOD-SCID IL2Rγ(null) humanized mice.

              Human hematolymphoid mice have become valuable tools for the study of human hematopoiesis and uniquely human pathogens in vivo. Recent improvements in xenorecipient strains allow for long-term reconstitution with a human immune system. However, certain hematopoietic lineages, for example, the myeloid lineage, are underrepresented, possibly because of the limited cross-reactivity of murine and human cytokines. Therefore, we created a nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency/interleukin-2 receptor-γ-null (NOD-SCID IL2Rγ(null)) mouse strain that expressed human stem cell factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-3, termed NSG-SGM3. Transplantation of CD34(+) human hematopoietic stem cells into NSG-SGM3 mice led to robust human hematopoietic reconstitution in blood, spleen, bone marrow, and liver. Human myeloid cell frequencies, specifically, myeloid dendritic cells, were elevated in the bone marrow of humanized NSG-SGM3 mice compared with nontransgenic NSG recipients. Most significant, however, was the increase in the CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T-cell population in all compartments analyzed. These CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells were functional, as evidenced by their ability to suppress T-cell proliferation. In conclusion, humanized NSG-SGM3 mice might serve as a useful model to study human regulatory T-cell development in vivo, but this unexpected lineage skewing also highlights the importance of adequate spatiotemporal expression of human cytokines for future xenorecipient strain development.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Biotechnology
                Nat Biotechnol
                Springer Nature
                1087-0156
                1546-1696
                February 18 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41587-019-0016-3
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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