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      Marine pharmacology in 2007–8: Marine compounds with antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the immune and nervous system, and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action

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          Abstract

          The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature in 2007–8 is covered in this review, which follows a similar format to the previous 1998–2006 reviews of this series. The preclinical pharmacology of structurally characterized marine compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis and antiviral activities were reported for 74 marine natural products. Additionally, 59 marine compounds were reported to affect the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems as well as to possess anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 65 marine metabolites were shown to bind to a variety of receptors and miscellaneous molecular targets, and thus upon further completion of mechanism of action studies, will contribute to several pharmacological classes. Marine pharmacology research during 2007–8 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 26 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 197 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical marine pharmaceuticals pipeline. Sustained preclinical research with marine natural products demonstrating novel pharmacological activities, will probably result in the expansion of the current marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which currently consists of 13 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories.

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          Most cited references 188

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          Renaissance in antibacterial discovery from actinomycetes.

           R Baltz (2008)
          The soil actinomycetes have been important sources of antibiotics, but were nearly abandoned in recent years in favor of high-throughput target-based screening of chemical libraries. The latter approach has not been productive, so it is time to reinvigorate the discovery of new antibiotics from a proven source. Recent progress has been made on antibiotic discovery from actinomycetes by using high-throughput fermentation, isolation of marine actinomycetes, mining genomes for cryptic pathways, and combinatorial biosynthesis to generate new secondary metabolites related to existing pharmacophores.
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            Bioactive natural products from marine cyanobacteria for drug discovery.

            The prokaryotic marine cyanobacteria continue to be an important source of structurally bioactive secondary metabolites. A majority of these molecules are nitrogen-containing compounds biosynthesized by large multimodular nonribosomal polypeptide (NRP) or mixed polyketide-NRP enzymatic systems. A total of 128 marine cyanobacterial alkaloids, published in the literature between January 2001 and December 2006, are presented in this review with emphasis on their biosynthesis and biological activities. In addition, a number of highly cytotoxic compounds such as hectochlorin, lyngbyabellins, apratoxins, and aurilides have been identified as potential lead compounds for the development of anticancer agents. A brief coverage on the distribution of natural product biosynthetic genes as well as the mechanisms of tailoring enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of cyanobacterial compounds will also be given.
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              Radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching activity of marine carotenoid fucoxanthin and its metabolites.

              Antioxidant activity of carotenoids is suggested to be one of the factors for their disease preventing effects. Marine carotenoids fucoxanthin and its two metabolites, fucoxanthinol and halocynthiaxanthin, have been shown to exhibit several biological effects. The antioxidant activities of these three carotenoids were assessed in vitro with respect to radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching abilities. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol was higher than that of halocynthiaxanthin, with the effective concentration for 50% scavenging (EC 50) being 164.60, 153.78, and 826.39 microM, respectively. 2,2'-Azinobis-3-ethylbenzo thizoline-6-sulphonate radical scavenging activity of fucoxanthinol (EC 50, 2.49 microM) was stronger than that of fucoxanthin (EC 50, 8.94 microM). Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as measured by the chemiluminescence technique showed that the scavenging activity of fucoxanthin was 7.9 times higher than that by fucoxanthinol, 16.3 times higher than that by halocynthiaxanthin, and 13.5 times higher than that by alpha-tocopherol. A similar trend was observed when the hydroxyl radical scavenging was assessed by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. ESR analysis of the superoxide radical scavenging activity also showed the superiority of fucoxanthin over the other two carotenoids tested. Singlet oxygen quenching ability of the three carotenoids was lower than that of beta-carotene, with quenching rate constants ( k Q, x10 (10) M (-1) s (-1)) being 1.19, 1.81, 0.80, and 12.78 for fucoxanthin, fucoxanthinol, halocynthiaxanthin, and beta-carotene, respectively. The higher radical scavenging activity of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol compared with halocynthiaxanthin is assumed to be due to presence of the allenic bond.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol
                Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol
                Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology
                Published by Elsevier Inc.
                1532-0456
                1532-0456
                3 September 2010
                March 2011
                3 September 2010
                : 153
                : 2
                : 191-222
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Pharmacology, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, 555 31st Street, Downers Grove, Il 60515, USA
                [b ]Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931, USA
                [c ]Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 780, CEP 13560-970, São Carlos, Brazil
                [d ]Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Minato-cho, Hakodate 041-8611, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 630 515 6951; fax: +1 630 971 6414. amayer@ 123456midwestern.edu
                Article
                S1532-0456(10)00162-6
                10.1016/j.cbpc.2010.08.008
                7110230
                20826228
                020b69ca-234b-4733-a99b-0b8d6f4143bb
                Copyright © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc.

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