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      Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

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          Abstract

          Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

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          Most cited references 165

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          Genetics and Biochemistry of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

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            Chemical studies of anthocyanins: A review

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              Proanthocyanidins--a final frontier in flavonoid research?

              Proanthocyanidins are oligomeric and polymeric end products of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. They are present in the fruits, bark, leaves and seeds of many plants, where they provide protection against predation. At the same time they give flavor and astringency to beverages such as wine, fruit juices and teas, and are increasingly recognized as having beneficial effects on human health. The presence of proanthocyanidins is also a major quality factor for forage crops. The past 2 years have seen important breakthroughs in our understanding of the biosynthesis of the building blocks of proanthocyanidins, the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. However, virtually nothing is known about the ways in which these units are assembled into the corresponding oligomers in vivo. Molecular genetic approaches are leading to an understanding of the regulatory genes that control proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, and this information, together with increased knowledge of the enzymes specific for the pathway, will facilitate the genetic engineering of plants for introduction of value-added nutraceutical and forage quality traits.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                09 December 2010
                December 2010
                : 15
                : 12
                : 9057-9091
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
                [2 ]Faculty of Applied Science, Business and Computing, Eastern Institute of Technology, Napier 4142, New Zealand
                Author notes
                [† ]

                These authors equally contributed to this work.

                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: chqduan@ 123456yahoo.com.cn ; Tel.: +86-10-62737136; Fax: +86-10-62737136.
                Article
                molecules-15-09057
                10.3390/molecules15129057
                6259108
                21150825
                © 2010 by the authors;

                licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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