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      Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918) (Diptera, Culicidae), a new country record for England, contrasted with Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838)

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          Mosquitoes and Their Control

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            Genetic diversity and molecular identification of mosquito species in the Anopheles maculatus group using the ITS2 region of rDNA.

            The species diversity and genetic structure of mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles maculatus group in Southeast Asia were investigated using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). A molecular phylogeny indicates the presence of at least one hitherto unrecognised species. Mosquitoes of chromosomal form K from eastern Thailand have a unique ITS2 sequence that is 3.7% divergent from the next most closely related taxon (An. sawadwongporni) in the group. In the context of negligible intraspecific variation at ITS2, this suggests that chromosomal form K is most probably a distinct species. Although An. maculatus sensu stricto from northern Thailand and southern Thailand/peninsular Malaysia differ from each other in chromosomal banding pattern and vectorial capacity, no intraspecific variation was observed in the ITS2 sequences of this species over this entire geographic area despite an extensive survey. A PCR-based identification method was developed to distinguish five species of the group (An. maculatus, An. dravidicus, An. pseudowillmori, An. sawadwongporni and chromosomal form K) to assist field-based studies in northwestern Thailand. Sequences from 187 mosquitoes (mostly An. maculatus and An. sawadwongporni) revealed no intraspecific variation in specimens from Thailand, Cambodia, mainland China, Malaysia, Taiwan and Vietnam, suggesting that this identification method will be widely applicable in Southeast Asia. The lack of detectable genetic structure also suggests that populations of these species are either connected by gene flow and/or share a recent common history.
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              DNA barcoding: complementing morphological identification of mosquito species in Singapore

              Background Taxonomy that utilizes morphological characteristics has been the gold standard method to identify mosquito species. However, morphological identification is challenging when the expertise is limited and external characters are damaged because of improper specimen handling. Therefore, we explored the applicability of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene-based DNA barcoding as an alternative tool to identify mosquito species. In the present study, we compared the morphological identification of mosquito specimens with their differentiation based on COI barcode, in order to establish a more reliable identification system for mosquito species found in Singapore. Methods We analysed 128 adult mosquito specimens, belonging to 45 species of 13 genera. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and other genera of mosquitoes and the distinctive clustering of different species was compared with their taxonomic identity. Results The COI-based DNA barcoding achieved a 100% success rate in identifying the mosquito species. We also report COI barcode sequences of 16 mosquito species which were not available previously in sequence databases. Conclusions Our study utilised for the first time DNA barcoding to identify mosquito species in Singapore. COI-based DNA barcoding is a useful tool to complement taxonomy-based identification of mosquito species. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-014-0569-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ZooKeys
                ZK
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2970
                1313-2989
                April 27 2017
                April 27 2017
                : 671
                : 119-130
                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.671.12477
                © 2017

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