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      Evaluation of a Novel Brachial Cuff-Based Oscillometric Method for Estimating Central Systolic Pressure in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Elevated wave reflections and arterial stiffness, as well as ambulatory blood pressure (BP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular risk in end-stage-renal-disease. This study is the first to evaluate in hemodialysis patients the validity of a new ambulatory oscillometric device (Mobil-O-Graph, IEM, Germany), which estimates aortic BP, augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Methods: Aortic SBP (aSBP), heart rate-adjusted AIx (AIx(75)) and PWV measured with Mobil-O-Graph were compared with the values from the most widely used tonometric device (Sphygmocor, ArtCor, Australia) in 73 hemodialysispatients. Measurements were made in a randomized order after 10 min of rest in the supine position at least 30 min before a dialysis session. Brachial BP (mercury sphygmomanometer) was used for the calibration of Sphygmocor's waveform. Results: Sphygmocor-derivedaSBP and AIx(75) did not differ from the relevant Mobil-O-Graph measurements (aSBP: 136.3 ± 19.6 vs. 133.5 ± 19.3 mm Hg, p = 0.068; AIx(75): 28.4 ± 9.3 vs. 30.0 ± 11.8%, p = 0.229). The small difference in aSBP is perhaps explained by a relevant difference in brachial SBP used for calibration (146.9 ± 20.4 vs. 145.2 ± 19.9 mm Hg, p = 0.341). Sphygmocor PWV was higher than Mobil-O-Graph PWV (10.3 ± 3.4 vs. 9.5 ± 2.1 m/s, p < 0.01). All 3 parameters estimated by Mobil-O-Graph showed highly significant (p < 0.001) correlations with the relevant measurements of Sphygmocor (aSBP, r = 0.770; AIx(75), r = 0.400; PWV, r = 0.739). The Bland-Altman Plots for aSBP and AIx(75) showed acceptable agreement between the two devices and no evidence of systemic bias for PWV. Conclusion: As in other populations, acceptable agreement between Mobil-O-Graph and Sphygmocor was evident for aSBP and AIx(75) in hemodialysis patients; PWV was slightly underestimated by Mobil-O-Graph.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Arterial wave reflections and survival in end-stage renal failure.

          The increased effect of arterial wave reflections on central arteries like the common carotid artery seen in end-stage renal failure (ESRF) patients favors myocardial hypertrophy and oxygen consumption and alters coronary blood flow distribution. Nevertheless, the impact of wave reflection on the outcome and end points such as mortality remains to be demonstrated. One hundred eighty ESRF patients (age, 54+/-16 years) were monitored for 52+/-36 months (mean+/-SD). Seventy deaths, including 40 cardiovascular (CV) and 30 non-CV events, occurred. At entry, patients, in addition to standard clinical and biochemical analyses, underwent aortic pulse wave velocity measurement and determination of arterial wave reflexion by applanation tonometry on the common carotid artery that was expressed as augmentation index. Cox analyses demonstrated that predictors of all-cause and CV mortality were age, aortic pulse wave velocity, low diastolic blood pressure, preexisting CV disease, and increased augmentation index, whereas the prescription of an ACE inhibitor had a favorable effect on survival. After adjustment for all confounding factors, the risk ratio for each 10% increase in augmentation index was 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.86; P<0.0001) for all-cause mortality and 1.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 1.90; P<0.0001) for CV mortality. These results provide the first direct evidence that in ESRF patients increased effect of arterial wave reflections is an independent predictor of all-cause and CV mortality.
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            Arterial stiffness and pulse pressure in CKD and ESRD.

            We recognize that increased systolic pressure is the most challenging form of hypertension today and that pulse pressure as an independent cardiovascular risk factor has focused attention on arterial stiffness and wave reflections as the most important factors determining these pressures. In recent years, many studies emphasized the role of arterial rigidity in the development of cardiovascular diseases, and it was shown that stiffening of arteries is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Moreover,arterial stiffening is linked to decreased glomerular filtration rate, and is predictive of kidney disease progression and the patient’s cardiovascular outcome. Premature vascular aging and arterial stiffening are observed with progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in end-stage renal disease(ESRD). This accelerated aging is associated with outward remodeling of large vessels, characterized by increased arterial radius not totally compensated for by artery wall hypertrophy. Arterial stiffening in CKD and ESRD patients is of multifactorial origin with extensive arterial calcifications representing a major covariate. With aging, the rigidity is more pronounced in the aorta than in peripheral conduit arteries, leading to the disappearance or inversion of the arterial stiffness gradient and less protection of the microcirculation from high-pressure transmission. Various non-pharmacological or pharmacological interventions can modestly slow the progression of arterial stiffness,but arterial stiffness is, in part, pressure dependent and treatments able to stop the process mainly include antihypertensive drugs.
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              Role of pulse pressure amplification in arterial hypertension: experts' opinion and review of the data.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2014
                October 2014
                11 October 2014
                : 40
                : 3
                : 242-250
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Hippokration Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, bSection of Nephrology and Hypertension, 1st Department of Medicine, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, cTherapeutiki Hemodialysis Unit, Thessaloniki, dHemodialysis Unit, General Hospital of Komotini, Komotini, and eHypertension Unit &amp; Cardiovascular Research Laboratory, ‘Laiko' Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
                Author notes
                *Pantelis A. Sarafidis, MD, MSc, PhD, Department of Nephrology, Hippokration Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Konstantinoupoleos 49, GR-54642, Thessaloniki (Greece), E-Mail psarafidis11@yahoo.gr
                Article
                367791 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:242-250
                10.1159/000367791
                25322847
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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