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      PHANEROZOIC BIODIVERSITY MASS EXTINCTIONS

      Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences

      Annual Reviews

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          Most cited references 102

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          Mass extinctions in the marine fossil record.

           D Raup,  J Sepkoski (1982)
          A new compilation of fossil data on invertebrate and vertebrate families indicates that four mass extinctions in the marine realm are statistically distinct from background extinction levels. These four occurred late in the Ordovician, Permian, Triassic, and Cretaceous periods. A fifth extinction event in the Devonian stands out from the background but is not statistically significant in these data. Background extinction rates appear to have declined since Cambrian time, which is consistent with the prediction that optimization of fitness should increase through evolutionary time.
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            A Geological Time Scale 2004

             F Gradstein,  J Ogg,  A Smith (2004)
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              Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions

               P.B. Wignall (2001)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences
                Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.
                Annual Reviews
                0084-6597
                1545-4495
                May 2006
                May 2006
                : 34
                : 1
                : 127-155
                Article
                10.1146/annurev.earth.33.092203.122654
                © 2006

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