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      Gender-specific differential expression of exosomal miRNA in synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis

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          Abstract

          The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is poorly understood, and therapeutic approaches are limited to preventing progression of the disease. Recent studies have shown that exosomes play a vital role in cell-to-cell communication, and pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Molecular profiling of synovial fluid derived exosomal miRNAs may increase our understanding of OA progression and may lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this article we report the first characterization of exosomes miRNAs from human synovial fluid. The synovial fluid exosomes share similar characteristics (size, surface marker, miRNA content) with previously described exosomes in other body fluids. MiRNA microarray analysis showed OA specific exosomal miRNA of male and female OA. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified gender-specific target genes/signaling pathways. These pathway analyses showed that female OA specific miRNAs are estrogen responsive and target TLR (toll-like receptor) signaling pathways. Furthermore, articular chondrocytes treated with OA derived extracellular vesicles had decreased expression of anabolic genes and elevated expression of catabolic and inflammatory genes. In conclusion, synovial fluid exosomal miRNA content is altered in patients with OA and these changes are gender specific.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Regulation of immune responses by extracellular vesicles.

          Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are small membrane vesicles derived from multivesicular bodies or from the plasma membrane. Most, if not all, cell types release extracellular vesicles, which then enter the bodily fluids. These vesicles contain a subset of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids that are derived from the parent cell. It is thought that extracellular vesicles have important roles in intercellular communication, both locally and systemically, as they transfer their contents, including proteins, lipids and RNAs, between cells. Extracellular vesicles are involved in numerous physiological processes, and vesicles from both non-immune and immune cells have important roles in immune regulation. Moreover, extracellular vesicle-based therapeutics are being developed and clinically tested for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders and cancer. Given the tremendous therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles, this Review focuses on their role in modulating immune responses, as well as their potential therapeutic applications.
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            MSC-derived exosomes: a novel tool to treat therapy-refractory graft-versus-host disease.

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              The role of synovitis in osteoarthritis pathogenesis.

              Research into the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA) has focused on cartilage and peri-articular bone, but there is increasing recognition that OA affects all of the joint tissues, including the synovium (SM). Under normal physiological conditions the synovial lining consists of a thin layer of cells with phenotypic features of macrophages and fibroblasts. These cells and the underlying vascularized connective tissue stroma form a complex structure that is an important source of synovial fluid (SF) components that are essential for normal cartilage and joint function. The histological changes observed in the SM in OA generally include features indicative of an inflammatory "synovitis"; specifically they encompass a range of abnormalities, such as synovial lining hyperplasia, infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes, neoangiogenesis and fibrosis. The pattern of synovial reaction varies with disease duration and associated metabolic and structural changes in other joint tissues. Imaging modalities including magnetic resonance (MRI) and ultrasound (US) have proved useful in detecting and quantifying synovial abnormalities, but individual studies have varied in their methods of evaluation. Despite these differences, most studies have concluded that the presence of synovitis in OA is associated with more severe pain and joint dysfunction. In addition, synovitis may be predictive of faster rates of cartilage loss in certain patient populations. Recent studies have provided insights into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of synovitis in OA. Available evidence suggests that the inflammatory process involves engagement of Toll-like receptors and activation of the complement cascade by degradation products of extracellular matrices of cartilage and other joint tissues. The ensuing synovial reaction can lead to synthesis and release of a wide variety of cytokines and chemokines. Some of these inflammatory mediators are detected in joint tissues and SF in OA and have catabolic effects on chondrocytes. These inflammatory mediators represent potential targets for therapeutic interventions designed to reduce both symptoms and structural joint damage in OA. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Osteoarthritis". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                sfulzele@augusta.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                17 May 2017
                17 May 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2284 9329, GRID grid.410427.4, Departments of Pathology, , Augusta University, ; Augusta, GA 30912 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2284 9329, GRID grid.410427.4, Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, , Augusta University, ; Augusta, GA 30912 USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2284 9329, GRID grid.410427.4, Department of Medicine, , Augusta University, ; Augusta, GA 30912 USA
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2284 9329, GRID grid.410427.4, Cell Biology and Anatomy, , Augusta University, ; Augusta, GA 30912 USA
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2097 4943, GRID grid.213917.f, , Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, ; Georgia, GA 30332 USA
                Article
                1905
                10.1038/s41598-017-01905-y
                5435729
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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