SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus of ~30 kb genome size which belongs to genus Coronavirus and family Coronaviridae. SARS-CoV-2 has recently emerged and has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Genomic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 has shown that it is of zoonotic origin. The structure of SARS-CoV-2 is found to be similar to SARS-CoV with virion size ranging from 70 to 90 nm. Spike, membrane, and envelope surface viral proteins of coronavirus are embedded in host membrane-derived lipid bilayer encapsulating the helical nucleocapsid comprising viral RNA. The genome comprises of 6–11 open reading frames (ORFs) with 5′ and 3′ flanking untranslated regions (UTRs). Sequence variation among SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV revealed no significant difference in ORFs and nsps. The nsps includes two viral cysteine proteases including papain-like protease (nsp3), chymotrypsin-like, 3C-like, or main protease (nsp5), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), helicase (nsp13), and others likely to be involved in the transcription and replication of SARS-CoV-2. The structure of spike glycoprotein structure of SARS-CoV-2 resembles that of the spike protein of SARS-CoV with an root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of 3.8 Å. Like SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 uses the ACE2 receptor for internalization and TMPRSS2 serine proteases for S protein priming. Histopathological investigation of tissues from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients showed virus-induced cytopathic effect with signs of acute respiratory distress syndrome in lung cells. This chapter discusses about the morphology, genome organization, replication, and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 that may help us understand the disease that may leads to identification of effective antiviral drugs and vaccines.