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      Sociodemographic factors, level of physical activity and health-related quality of life in adults from the north-east of São Paulo, Brazil: a cross-sectional population study

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          To verify the association among sociodemographic variables, physical activity level and health-related quality of life in adults aged 20 years and over.


          Population-based study, with household sample by clusters. The dependent variables were the PCS and MCS scores of the instrument 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the independent variables were gathered in sociodemographic characteristics and the level of physical activity. Absolute and relative frequency distributions were used for categorical variables and bivariate analysis, using Student’s t-test and ANOVA and multivariate using non-conditional logistic regression.


          Of the 600 interviewees, the mean PCS score for men was 80.2 and for women 74.6, while for MCS, 83.8 (±16.9) and 76.5 (±23.3), for men and women, respectively. Women tend to report lower scores than men in all domains: men (OR=4.83) and women (OR=4.80) were older (OR=4.34) (OR=3.57) and sedentary women (OR=1.90) were associated with lower PCS scores, while older men (OR=3.96) and widowed and separated’ (OR=3.03) had lower MSC scores.


          HRQoL was associated with advancing age and schooling, in both sexes, sedentary women and widowed and separated men.

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          Most cited references 30

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          The role of conceptual frameworks in epidemiological analysis: a hierarchical approach.

          This paper discusses appropriate strategies for multivariate data analysis in epidemiological studies. In studies where determinants of disease are sought, it is suggested that the complex hierarchical inter-relationships between these determinants are best managed through the use of conceptual frameworks. Failure to take these aspects into consideration is common in the epidemiological literature and leads to underestimation of the effects of distal determinants. An example of this analytical approach, which is not based purely on statistical associations, is given for assessing determinants of mortality due to diarrhoea in children. Conceptual frameworks provide guidance for the use of multivariate techniques and aid the interpretation of their results in the light of social and biological knowledge.
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            Validity of SF-12 summary scores in a Greek general population

            Background The 12-item Health Survey (SF-12) was developed as a shorter alternative to the SF-36 for use in large-scale studies, particularly when overall physical and mental health are the outcomes of interest instead of the typical eight-scale profile. The main purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the Greek version of the SF-12. Methods A stratified representative sample (N = 1005) of the Greek general population was interviewed. The survey included the SF-36, the EQ-5D and questions on socio-demographic and health-related characteristics. SF-12 summary scores were derived using the standard US algorithm. Factor analysis was used to confirm the hypothesized component structure of the SF-12 items. Construct validity was investigated with "known groups" validity testing and via convergent and divergent validity, which in turn were assessed by the correlations with the EQ-5D dimensions. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparisons with SF-36 summary scores. Results SF-12 summary scores distinguished well, and in the expected manner, between groups of respondents on the basis of gender, age, education, socio-economic status, self-reported health problems and health services utilization, thus providing evidence of construct validity. Effect size differences between SF-36 and SF-12 summary scores were generally small (<0.2), supporting concurrent (criterion) validity. Significantly lower mean PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores were observed for respondents reporting chronic conditions compared to those without (P < 0.001). Convergent and divergent validity were supported by expected relationships with the EQ-5D. Reporting a problem in an EQ dimension was associated with lower SF-12 summary scores, supporting concurrent validity. Sensitivity of the Greek SF-12 and replication of the original measurement and conceptual model were demonstrated. Conclusion The results provide evidence on the validity of the Greek SF-12 and, in conjunction to future studies addressing test-retest reliability and responsiveness, support its use in Greek health status studies as a brief, yet valid, alternative to the SF-36.
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              Health related quality of life among the elderly: a population-based study using SF-36 survey.

              As life expectancy continues to rise, one of the greatest challenges of public health is to improve the quality of later years of life. The aim of this present study was to analyze the quality of life profile of the elderly across different demographic and socioeconomic factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two stages, involving 1,958 individuals aged 60 years or more. Health related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. The lowest scores were found among measures for vitality, mental health and general health and the highest among factors including social functioning and role limitations due to emotional and physical factors. HRQOL was found to be worse among women, in individuals at advanced ages, those who practiced evangelical religions and those with lower levels of income and schooling. The greatest differences in SF-36 scores between the categories were observed in functional capacity and physical factors. The results suggest that healthcare programs for the elderly should take into account the multi-dimensionality of health and social inequalities so that interventions can target the most affected elements of HRQOL as well as the most vulnerable subgroups of the population.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                8 January 2018
                : 8
                : 1
                [1 ]departmentPhysiotherapy Department , Universidade do Sagrado Coração , Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil
                [2 ]departmentPhysiotherapy Department , Universidade do Sagrado Coração , Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil
                [3 ]departmentPhysiotherapy Department , Public Health Graduate Programme, Universidade do Sagrado Coração (USC) , Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil
                [4 ]departmentPhysiotherapy Department , Universidade do Sagrado Coração (USC) , Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil
                [5 ]departmentDepartment of Biostatistics , Universidade Estadual Paulista , Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil
                [6 ]departmentPhysiotherapy Department , Universidade do Sagrado Coração , Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] MSc Nicoly Machado Maciel; ni-maciel@ 123456hotmail.com
                © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001807, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo;
                Epidemiology and Global Health
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                health-related quality of life, determinants of health, lifestyle


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