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      Genomic insights into Campylobacter jejuni virulence and population genetics

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          Abstract

          Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a main food-borne pathogen in many parts of the world. Natural reservoirs include a wide variety of domestic and wild birds and mammals, whose intestines offer a suitable biological niche for the survival and dissemination of the organism. Understanding the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of C. jejuni is vital to prevent and control Campylobacter-associated infections. The recent progress in sequencing techniques has allowed for a rapid increase in our knowledge of the molecular biology and the genetic structures of Campylobacter. Single-molecule realtime (SMRT) sequencing, which goes beyond four-base sequencing, revealed the role of DNA methylation in modulating the biology and virulence of C. jejuni at the level of epigenetics. In this review, we will provide an up-to-date review on recent advances in understanding C. jejuni genomics, including structural features of genomes, genetic traits of virulence, population genetics, and epigenetics.

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          Most cited references104

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          The genome sequence of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni reveals hypervariable sequences.

          Campylobacter jejuni, from the delta-epsilon group of proteobacteria, is a microaerophilic, Gram-negative, flagellate, spiral bacterium-properties it shares with the related gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. It is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease throughout the world. In addition, infection with C. jejuni is the most frequent antecedent to a form of neuromuscular paralysis known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here we report the genome sequence of C. jejuni NCTC11168. C. jejuni has a circular chromosome of 1,641,481 base pairs (30.6% G+C) which is predicted to encode 1,654 proteins and 54 stable RNA species. The genome is unusual in that there are virtually no insertion sequences or phage-associated sequences and very few repeat sequences. One of the most striking findings in the genome was the presence of hypervariable sequences. These short homopolymeric runs of nucleotides were commonly found in genes encoding the biosynthesis or modification of surface structures, or in closely linked genes of unknown function. The apparently high rate of variation of these homopolymeric tracts may be important in the survival strategy of C. jejuni.
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            A nomenclature for restriction enzymes, DNA methyltransferases, homing endonucleases and their genes.

            R Roberts (2003)
            A nomenclature is described for restriction endonucleases, DNA methyltransferases, homing endonucleases and related genes and gene products. It provides explicit categories for the many different Type II enzymes now identified and provides a system for naming the putative genes found by sequence analysis of microbial genomes.
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              Campylobacter jejuni: molecular biology and pathogenesis.

              Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne bacterial pathogen that is common in the developed world. However, we know less about its biology and pathogenicity than we do about other less prevalent pathogens. Interest in C. jejuni has increased in recent years as a result of the growing appreciation of its importance as a pathogen and the availability of new model systems and genetic and genomic technologies. C. jejuni establishes persistent, benign infections in chickens and is rapidly cleared by many strains of laboratory mouse, but causes significant inflammation and enteritis in humans. Comparing the different host responses to C. jejuni colonization should increase our understanding of this organism.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Infectious Diseases and Translational Medicine
                Infect. Dis. Transl. Med.
                Infect. Dis. Transl. Med.
                International Biological and Medical Journals Publishing House Co., Limited (Room E16, 3/f, Yongda Commercial Building, No.97, Bonham Stand (Sheung Wan), HongKong )
                2411-2917
                20 November 2016
                20 November 2016
                : 2
                : 3
                : 109-119
                Affiliations
                From Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA
                From Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA
                Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA
                From Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Zuowei Wu, Email: wuzw@ 123456iastate.edu ;
                Qijing Zhang, Email: zhang123@ 123456iastate.edu .
                Article
                10.11979/idtm.201603005
                02771afb-f0f7-4dd1-86c0-17cbdfa8cf4a

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, References: 125, Pages: 11
                Product
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Population genetics,Epigenetics,Virulence factors,Genomics,Campylobacter jejuni

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