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      Polish Adaptation of the Modified Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Fatigue (TSK-F) and the Revision of the Tampa Scale in Terms of Pain for Cancer Patients

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to create a Polish adaptation of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia considering fatigue, and to verify the usefulness of the scale in the context of pain in cancer patients. The study was conducted at the Breast Cancer Unit, operating at the Greater Poland Cancer Centre, and at the Poznan Centre for Specialist Medical Services in Poznan. After considering the exclusion criteria, 100 people qualified for the interviews for the final study: 50 breast cancer patients and 50 healthy respondents (without cancer). Statistical analysis of the CFA score showed that the chi-square test was not significant (χ2 = 10.243, p = 0.332), indicating an acceptable fit of items across scales. The reliability of the internal consistency of the scales was tested by examining the Cronbach’s alpha scores for each question/statement. The mean values for this indicator were 0.74 for the pain-related scale and 0.84 for the fatigue-related scale. Construct validity was confirmed for the scales; AVE for the pain-related scale was 0.64 and for the fatigue-related scale was 0.68. The results suggest the validity of examining kinesiophobia in the context of pain- and fatigue-related mobility anxiety among breast cancer patients in Poland, and that the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia can be adapted for different dimensions of the condition. Both versions of the scale demonstrated adequately prepared parametric constructs, and all correlations showed a statistically significant relationship (p < 0.05). The use of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia in oncology patient studies in Poland may ultimately improve rehabilitation programs and enable the development of strategies to assist patients in supporting treatment to reduce movement anxiety.

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          Most cited references42

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          Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries

          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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            Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a state of the art

            In an attempt to explain how and why some individuals with musculoskeletal pain develop a chronic pain syndrome, Lethem et al. (Lethem J, Slade PD, Troup JDG, Bentley G. Outline of fear-avoidance model of exaggerated pain perceptions. Behav Res Ther 1983; 21: 401-408).ntroduced a so-called 'fear-avoidance' model. The central concept of their model is fear of pain. 'Confrontation' and 'avoidance' are postulated as the two extreme responses to this fear, of which the former leads to the reduction of fear over time. The latter, however, leads to the maintenance or exacerbation of fear, possibly generating a phobic state. In the last decade, an increasing number of investigations have corroborated and refined the fear-avoidance model. The aim of this paper is to review the existing evidence for the mediating role of pain-related fear, and its immediate and long-term consequences in the initiation and maintenance of chronic pain disability. We first highlight possible precursors of pain-related fear including the role negative appraisal of internal and external stimuli, negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity may play. Subsequently, a number of fear-related processes will be discussed including escape and avoidance behaviors resulting in poor behavioral performance, hypervigilance to internal and external illness information, muscular reactivity, and physical disuse in terms of deconditioning and guarded movement. We also review the available assessment methods for the quantification of pain-related fear and avoidance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the recent findings for the prevention and treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Although there are still a number of unresolved issues which merit future research attention, pain-related fear and avoidance appear to be an essential feature of the development of a chronic problem for a substantial number of patients with musculoskeletal pain.
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              Breast Cancer-Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Classification, Prognostic Markers, and Current Treatment Strategies-An Updated Review.

              Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide with more than 2 million new cases in 2020. Its incidence and death rates have increased over the last three decades due to the change in risk factor profiles, better cancer registration, and cancer detection. The number of risk factors of BC is significant and includes both the modifiable factors and non-modifiable factors. Currently, about 80% of patients with BC are individuals aged >50. Survival depends on both stage and molecular subtype. Invasive BCs comprise wide spectrum tumors that show a variation concerning their clinical presentation, behavior, and morphology. Based on mRNA gene expression levels, BC can be divided into molecular subtypes (Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-enriched, and basal-like). The molecular subtypes provide insights into new treatment strategies and patient stratifications that impact the management of BC patients. The eighth edition of TNM classification outlines a new staging system for BC that, in addition to anatomical features, acknowledges biological factors. Treatment of breast cancer is complex and involves a combination of different modalities including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or biological therapies delivered in diverse sequences.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                IJERGQ
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                IJERPH
                MDPI AG
                1660-4601
                October 2022
                October 05 2022
                : 19
                : 19
                : 12730
                Article
                10.3390/ijerph191912730
                36232029
                0277a81e-67ef-4463-8a24-612c91bee5cf
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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