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      Proestrous Surge of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Secretion Inhibits Apoptosis of Anterior Pituitary Cells in Cycling Female Rats

      ,

      Neuroendocrinology

      S. Karger AG

      Apoptosis, Bax, Estrous cycle, Gonadotropes, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Gonadal steroids

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          Abstract

          Estrogen affects apoptotic cell death in estrogen-responsive tissues. The purpose of the present study was to examine dynamic changes in apoptotic cell death in the anterior pituitary gland during the estrous cycle and to investigate neuroendocrine regulation of these changes in cycling female rats. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) for in situ detection of DNA strand breaks revealed that the number of TUNEL-positive anterior pituitary cells was changing during the estrous cycle, with a maximum in the morning of proestrus and a minimum in the morning of estrus. A similar pattern was observed with Bax immunostaining; however, no difference was observed in Bcl-2 immunostaining. Most of Bax-immunoreactive cells were identified as a subpopulation of gonadotropes. Pentobarbital administered in the afternoon of proestrus attenuated the decrease in TUNEL-positive or Bax-immunoreactive cells in the morning of estrus, although estradiol treatment failed to affect it. This action of pentobarbital was reduced by simultaneous treatment with an ovulation-inducing dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), but not with progesterone, an ovarian steroid also released after GnRH treatment. These results suggest that anterior pituitary cells, mostly gonadotropes, undergo a cyclic change in apoptotic cell death during the estrous cycle and that the inhibition of apoptosis on estrus is due, at least in part, to the proestrous surge of GnRH secretion.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Identification of programmed cell death in situ via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation

          Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a key role in developmental biology and in maintenance of the steady state in continuously renewing tissues. Currently, its existence is inferred mainly from gel electrophoresis of a pooled DNA extract as PCD was shown to be associated with DNA fragmentation. Based on this observation, we describe here the development of a method for the in situ visualization of PCD at the single-cell level, while preserving tissue architecture. Conventional histological sections, pretreated with protease, were nick end labeled with biotinylated poly dU, introduced by terminal deoxy- transferase, and then stained using avidin-conjugated peroxidase. The reaction is specific, only nuclei located at positions where PCD is expected are stained. The initial screening includes: small and large intestine, epidermis, lymphoid tissues, ovary, and other organs. A detailed analysis revealed that the process is initiated at the nuclear periphery, it is relatively short (1-3 h from initiation to cell elimination) and that PCD appears in tissues in clusters. The extent of tissue-PCD revealed by this method is considerably greater than apoptosis detected by nuclear morphology, and thus opens the way for a variety of studies.
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            Bcl-2 heterodimerizes in vivo with a conserved homolog, Bax, that accelerates programed cell death

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              Catalyzed reporter deposition, a novel method of signal amplification. Application to immunoassays.

              A novel signal amplification method, catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD), and its application to immunoassays is described. The method involves utilizing an analyte-dependent reporter enzyme (ADRE) to catalyze the deposition of additional reporter on the surface in a solid-phase immunoassay. In the examples described, deposition of reporter is facilitated by using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) ADRE to catalyze the deposition of biotin labeled phenols. The deposited biotins are then reacted with streptavidin-labeled enzyme, thereby resulting in deposition of enzyme. Using the ADRE to catalyze the deposition of additional enzyme results in an amplification of the signal of the ADRE alone and improves the detection limit of the assay. The method is highly sensitive, simple, flexible, and easy to implement.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2002
                November 2002
                02 December 2002
                : 76
                : 5
                : 272-282
                Affiliations
                Department of Physiology, Yamanashi Medical University, Yamanashi, Japan
                Article
                66626 Neuroendocrinology 2002;76:272–282
                10.1159/000066626
                12457038
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 45, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Reproductive Neuroendocrinology

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