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      Risk Stratification for Renal Transplantation after Cardiac or Lung Transplantation: Single-Center Experience and Review of the Literature

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          Abstract

          Background: Long-term survival after heart (HTx) or lung (LuTx) transplantation increases the risk for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). After HTx ESRD was reported to enhance mortality, and kidney transplantation (KTx) was shown to improve survival. However, prognostic factors in ESRD after HTx or LuTx are largely unknown. Methods: Single-center observational study in HTx and LuTx patients who accessed the KTx waiting list; baseline characteristics were correlated with mortality. Results: KTx was performed in 15 of 65 study patients. Survival was comparable on the KTx waiting list and in reference patients from the same center without ESRD. KTx significantly improved survival (5 years’ survival 84.6% with KTx vs. 56.5% on the KTx waiting list, p = 0.030). None of the baseline parameters predicted mortality in the KTx group. Only on the KTx waiting list BMI (median 24.7 vs. 20.7; p < 0.05) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, median 63 vs. 53%, p < 0.008) significantly correlated with survival. Conclusions: The risk for mortality after HTx or LuTx is not increased by ESRD, provided that patients meet access criteria for the KTx waiting list. KTx improves survival in ESRD after HTx or LuTx. BMI and LVEF may predict outcome in HTx/LuTx patients on the KTx waiting list.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Reverse epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic heart failure.

          Traditional risk factors of a poor clinical outcome and mortality in the general population, including body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol, and blood pressure (BP), are also found to relate to outcome in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), but in an opposite direction. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and high values of BP have been demonstrated to be associated with greater survival among CHF patients. These findings are in contrast to the well-known associations of over-nutrition, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension with a poor outcome in the general population. The association between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and an adverse clinical outcome in CHF patients is referred to as "reverse epidemiology." The mechanisms for this inverse association in CHF is not clear. There are other populations with a similar risk factor reversal phenomenon, including patients with end-stage renal disease receiving dialysis, those with advanced malignancies, and individuals with advanced age. Several possible causes are hypothesized: the time discrepancy of the competing risk factors may play a role; the presence of the "malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome" in CHF patients may explain the existence of reverse epidemiology; and a decreased level of lipoprotein molecules may distort their endotoxin-scavenging role, predisposing CHF patients with a low serum cholesterol level to inflammatory consequences of endotoxemia. It is possible that new goals for such traditional risk factors as BMI, serum cholesterol, and BP should be developed for CHF. Reverse epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors is observed in CHF and may have a bearing on the management of these patients; thus, it deserves further investigation.
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            Increased incidence of hip fractures in dialysis patients with low serum parathyroid hormone.

             Rosa Coco,  Carl Rush (2000)
            To study the complications of renal osteodystrophy in patients with end-stage renal disease, we reviewed the incidence of hip fractures in our outpatient dialysis population from 1988 to 1998. One thousand two hundred seventy-two patients were treated for a total of 4,039 patient-years; 56 hip fractures were documented during this period. The incidence of hip fractures was many times greater in the dialysis patients than in the general population in each of the age-, race-, and sex-matched subgroups. The 1-year mortality rate from the hip fracture event was nearly two and a half times greater in the dialysis patients compared with the general population. The incidence of hip fractures in the first half of the decade was similar to that observed in the second half. When parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were evaluated, we determined that patients with lower serum PTH levels were more likely to sustain a hip fracture than patients with higher PTH levels (P: < 0.006). In addition, we determined that patients with lower PTH levels had an earlier mortality than patients with higher PTH levels (P: < 0.03). We conclude that despite more aggressive therapy directed toward bone health in our dialysis patients in recent years, the incidence of hip fractures and their devastating morbidity and mortality remained unchanged over the past decade. Lower PTH levels may predispose to earlier mortality.
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              Cardiovascular complications in chronic kidney disease.

              The risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality remains alarmingly high in all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CVD often begins before end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and patients with reduced kidney function are more likely to die of CVD than to develop ESRD. Three pathological forms of CVD should be considered in patients with CKD: alterations in cardiac geometry, including left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, and arteriosclerosis. All are highly prevalent in patients with CKD. Although patients with CKD share many of the same risk factors for CVD as the general population, there are a number of uremia-related risk factors, such as anemia and alterations in calcium/phosphorus metabolism, that also play a role in promoting CVD. Treatment of both traditional and uremia-related risk factors should be initiated in the earlier stages of CKD. Additional clinical trials with a goal to reduce CVD are urgently needed in CKD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2007
                July 2007
                29 June 2007
                : 30
                : 4
                : 260-266
                Affiliations
                aNephrology and Medical Intensive Care, Charité Universitätsmedizin, and bGerman Heart Institute, Berlin, Germany
                Article
                104867 Kidney Blood Press Res 2007;30:260–266
                10.1159/000104867
                17622737
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 28, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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