27
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Nonlinear partial differential equations and applications: Developmental regulation of intestinal angiogenesis by indigenous microbes via Paneth cells

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The adult mouse intestine contains an intricate vascular network. The factors that control development of this network are poorly understood. Quantitative three-dimensional imaging studies revealed that a plexus of branched interconnected vessels developed in small intestinal villi during the period of postnatal development that coincides with assembly of a complex society of indigenous gut microorganisms (microbiota). To investigate the impact of this environmental transition on vascular development, we compared the capillary networks of germ-free mice with those of ex-germ-free animals colonized during or after completion of postnatal gut development. Adult germ-free mice had arrested capillary network formation. The developmental program can be restarted and completed within 10 days after colonization with a complete microbiota harvested from conventionally raised mice, or with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent inhabitant of the normal mouse/human gut. Paneth cells in the intestinal epithelium secrete antibacterial peptides that affect luminal microbial ecology. Comparisons of germ-free and B. thetaiotaomicron-colonized transgenic mice lacking Paneth cells established that microbial regulation of angiogenesis depends on this lineage. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism of postnatal animal development, where microbes colonizing a mucosal surface are assigned responsibility for regulating elaboration of the underlying microvasculature by signaling through a bacteria-sensing epithelial cell.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 24

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          How host-microbial interactions shape the nutrient environment of the mammalian intestine.

          Humans and other mammals are colonized by a vast, complex, and dynamic consortium of microorganisms. One evolutionary driving force for maintaining this metabolically active microbial society is to salvage energy from nutrients, particularly carbohydrates, that are otherwise nondigestible by the host. Much of our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which members of the intestinal microbiota degrade complex polysaccharides comes from studies of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent and genetically manipulatable component of the normal human and mouse gut. Colonization of germ-free mice with B. thetaiotaomicron has shown how this anaerobe modifies many aspects of intestinal cellular differentiation/gene expression to benefit both host and microbe. These and other studies underscore the importance of understanding precisely how nutrient metabolism serves to establish and sustain symbiotic relationships between mammals and their bacterial partners.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Secretion of microbicidal alpha-defensins by intestinal Paneth cells in response to bacteria.

            Paneth cells in mouse small intestinal crypts secrete granules rich in microbicidal peptides when exposed to bacteria or bacterial antigens. The dose-dependent secretion occurs within minutes and alpha-defensins, or cryptdins, account for 70% of the released bactericidal peptide activity. Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, lipid A and muramyl dipeptide elicit cryptdin secretion. Live fungi and protozoa, however, do not stimulate degranulation. Thus intestinal Paneth cells contribute to innate immunity by sensing bacteria and bacterial antigens, and discharge microbicidal peptides at effective concentrations accordingly.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Ecological developmental biology: developmental biology meets the real world.

               Scott Gilbert (2001)
              The production of phenotype is regulated by differential gene expression. However, the regulators of gene expression need not all reside within the embryo. Environmental factors, such as temperature, photoperiod, diet, population density, or the presence of predators, can produce specific phenotypes, presumably by altering gene-expression patterns. The field of ecological developmental biology seeks to look at development in the real world of predators, competitors, and changing seasons. Ecological concerns had played a major role in the formation of experimental embryology, and they are returning as the need for knowledge about the effects of environmental change on embryos and larvae becomes crucial. This essay reviews some of the areas of ecological developmental biology, concentrating on new studies of amphibia and Homo. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                November 26 2002
                November 13 2002
                November 26 2002
                : 99
                : 24
                : 15451-15455
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.202604299
                137737
                12432102
                028fc10d-623b-4ee3-8c32-1e5a696760eb
                © 2002
                Product

                Comments

                Comment on this article