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      SLAMF7 engagement superactivates macrophages in acute and chronic inflammation

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          Abstract

          Macrophages regulate protective immune responses to infectious microbes, but aberrant macrophage activation frequently drives pathological inflammation. To identify regulators of vigorous macrophage activation, we analyzed RNA-seq data from synovial macrophages and identified SLAMF7 as a receptor associated with a superactivated macrophage state in rheumatoid arthritis. We implicated IFN-γ as a key regulator of SLAMF7 expression and engaging SLAMF7 drove a strong wave of inflammatory cytokine expression. Induction of TNF-α after SLAMF7 engagement amplified inflammation through an autocrine signaling loop. We observed SLAMF7-induced gene programs not only in macrophages from rheumatoid arthritis patients but also in gut macrophages from patients with active Crohn’s disease and in lung macrophages from patients with severe COVID-19. This suggests a central role for SLAMF7 in macrophage superactivation with broad implications in human disease pathology.

          Abstract

          SLAMF7 is up-regulated on macrophages in inflamed tissues and drives superactivation in inflammatory human disease.

          Inflammatory macrophages get supercharged

          Macrophages produce inflammatory cytokines that stimulate immune responses against pathogens, but excessive or chronic activation in inflammatory diseases can lead to tissue damage. By profiling synovial macrophages, Simmons et al. found that SLAM family member (SLAMF7) was elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with less inflammatory osteoarthritis and could be induced by IFN-γ. Signaling through SLAMF7 in macrophages stimulated a cascade of inflammatory cytokine production that was further amplified by autocrine TNF. Macrophages from patients with inflammatory bowel disease or COVID-19 also expressed a transcriptional profile of dysfunctional SLAMF7-driven activation that was correlated with disease activity, demonstrating that SLAMF7-associated macrophage activation occurs during both acute and chronic human inflammatory diseases.

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          Moderated estimation of fold change and dispersion for RNA-seq data with DESeq2

          In comparative high-throughput sequencing assays, a fundamental task is the analysis of count data, such as read counts per gene in RNA-seq, for evidence of systematic changes across experimental conditions. Small replicate numbers, discreteness, large dynamic range and the presence of outliers require a suitable statistical approach. We present DESeq2, a method for differential analysis of count data, using shrinkage estimation for dispersions and fold changes to improve stability and interpretability of estimates. This enables a more quantitative analysis focused on the strength rather than the mere presence of differential expression. The DESeq2 package is available at http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/DESeq2.html. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-014-0550-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            STAR: ultrafast universal RNA-seq aligner.

            Accurate alignment of high-throughput RNA-seq data is a challenging and yet unsolved problem because of the non-contiguous transcript structure, relatively short read lengths and constantly increasing throughput of the sequencing technologies. Currently available RNA-seq aligners suffer from high mapping error rates, low mapping speed, read length limitation and mapping biases. To align our large (>80 billon reads) ENCODE Transcriptome RNA-seq dataset, we developed the Spliced Transcripts Alignment to a Reference (STAR) software based on a previously undescribed RNA-seq alignment algorithm that uses sequential maximum mappable seed search in uncompressed suffix arrays followed by seed clustering and stitching procedure. STAR outperforms other aligners by a factor of >50 in mapping speed, aligning to the human genome 550 million 2 × 76 bp paired-end reads per hour on a modest 12-core server, while at the same time improving alignment sensitivity and precision. In addition to unbiased de novo detection of canonical junctions, STAR can discover non-canonical splices and chimeric (fusion) transcripts, and is also capable of mapping full-length RNA sequences. Using Roche 454 sequencing of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplicons, we experimentally validated 1960 novel intergenic splice junctions with an 80-90% success rate, corroborating the high precision of the STAR mapping strategy. STAR is implemented as a standalone C++ code. STAR is free open source software distributed under GPLv3 license and can be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/rna-star/.
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              A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

              Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                Science Immunology
                Sci. Immunol.
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                2470-9468
                February 11 2022
                February 11 2022
                : 7
                : 68
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
                [2 ]Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
                [3 ]Division of Rheumatology, Inflammation and Immunity, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
                [4 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
                [5 ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
                Article
                10.1126/sciimmunol.abf2846
                35148199
                029088b3-0f83-4d83-8234-ffbd001f3b5f
                © 2022
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