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      Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

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          Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.


          Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold) were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT) tests were used to assess motoric function.


          The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17) compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005). The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results ( P<0.001). However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups ( P=0.35). The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18) and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.


          In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery, evaluated by EPT test, 4 weeks after sciatic nerve injury.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Mechanisms of neuropathic pain.

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            Ongoing activity in peripheral nerves: the physiology and pharmacology of impulses originating from a neuroma.

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              Oral supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid and uridine-5'-monophosphate increases dendritic spine density in adult gerbil hippocampus.

              Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is an essential component of membrane phosphatides and has been implicated in cognitive functions. Low levels of circulating or brain DHA are associated with various neurocognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), while laboratory animals, including animal models of AD, can exhibit improved cognitive ability with a diet enriched in DHA. Various cellular mechanisms have been proposed for DHA's behavioral effects, including increases in cellular membrane fluidity, promotion of neurite extension and inhibition of apoptosis. However, there is little direct evidence that DHA affects synaptic structure in living animals. Here we show that oral supplementation with DHA substantially increases the number of dendritic spines in adult gerbil hippocampus, particularly when animals are co-supplemented with a uridine source, uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP), which increases brain levels of the rate-limiting phosphatide precursor CTP. The increase in dendritic spines (>30%) is accompanied by parallel increases in membrane phosphatides and in pre- and post-synaptic proteins within the hippocampus. Hence, oral DHA may promote neuronal membrane synthesis to increase the number of synapses, particularly when co-administered with UMP. Our findings provide a possible explanation for the effects of DHA on behavior and also suggest a strategy to treat cognitive disorders resulting from synapse loss.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                23 May 2016
                : 9
                : 287-291
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
                [2 ]Department of Neurology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
                [3 ]Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dessy R Emril, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University/Dr Zainoel Abidin Hospital, Tgk Daud Beureueh 108, Banda Aceh, Aceh 23126, Indonesia, Tel +62 821 6171 6363, Email dessyezzy@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2016 Emril et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                neuropathic pain, nerve regeneration, nerve injury


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