Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Synaptic integration by NG2 cells

,

Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

Frontiers Media S.A.

NG2 cell, synapses, calcium signaling, dendrites, cable model

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      NG2 expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells stand out from other types of glial cells by receiving classical synaptic contacts from many neurons. This unconventional form of signaling between neurons and glial cells enables NG2 cells to receive information about the activity of presynaptic neurons with high temporal and spatial precision and has been postulated to be involved in activity-dependent myelination. While this still unproven concept is generally compelling, how NG2 cells may integrate synaptic input has hardly been addressed to date. Here we review the biophysical characteristics of synaptic currents and membrane properties of NG2 cells and discuss their capabilities to perform complex temporal and spatial signal integration and how this may be important for activity-dependent myelination.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 93

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      The NEURON simulation environment.

      The moment-to-moment processing of information by the nervous system involves the propagation and interaction of electrical and chemical signals that are distributed in space and time. Biologically realistic modeling is needed to test hypotheses about the mechanisms that govern these signals and how nervous system function emerges from the operation of these mechanisms. The NEURON simulation program provides a powerful and flexible environment for implementing such models of individual neurons and small networks of neurons. It is particularly useful when membrane potential is nonuniform and membrane currents are complex. We present the basic ideas that would help informed users make the most efficient use of NEURON.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        White matter in learning, cognition and psychiatric disorders.

        White matter is the brain region underlying the gray matter cortex, composed of neuronal fibers coated with electrical insulation called myelin. Previously of interest in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, myelin is attracting new interest as an unexpected contributor to a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. This is stimulating research into myelin involvement in normal cognitive function, learning and IQ. Myelination continues for decades in the human brain; it is modifiable by experience, and it affects information processing by regulating the velocity and synchrony of impulse conduction between distant cortical regions. Cell-culture studies have identified molecular mechanisms regulating myelination by electrical activity, and myelin also limits the critical period for learning through inhibitory proteins that suppress axon sprouting and synaptogenesis.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found

          Oligodendrocyte Dynamics in the Healthy Adult CNS: Evidence for Myelin Remodeling

          Summary Oligodendrocyte precursors (OPs) continue to proliferate and generate myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) well into adulthood. It is not known whether adult-born OLs ensheath previously unmyelinated axons or remodel existing myelin. We quantified OP division and OL production in different regions of the adult mouse CNS including the 4-month-old optic nerve, in which practically all axons are already myelinated. Even there, all OPs were dividing and generating new OLs and myelin at a rate higher than can be explained by first-time myelination of naked axons. We conclude that adult-born OLs in the optic nerve are engaged in myelin remodeling, either replacing OLs that die in service or intercalating among existing myelin sheaths. The latter would predict that average internode length should decrease with age. Consistent with that, we found that adult-born OLs elaborated much shorter but many more internodes than OLs generated during early postnatal life.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Experimental Neurophysiology, Department of Neurosurgery, University Clinic Bonn Bonn, Germany
            Author notes

            Edited by: Martin Stangel, Hannover Medical School, Germany

            Reviewed by: Diego Clemente, Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos, Spain; Herbert Hildebrandt, Hannover Medical School, Germany

            *Correspondence: Dirk Dietrich, Experimental Neurophysiology, Department of Neurosurgery, University Clinic Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn, Germany e-mail: dirk.dietrich@ 123456uni-bonn.de

            This article was submitted to the journal Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience.

            Journal
            Front Cell Neurosci
            Front Cell Neurosci
            Front. Cell. Neurosci.
            Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            1662-5102
            20 December 2013
            2013
            : 7
            3868909
            10.3389/fncel.2013.00255
            Copyright © 2013 Sun and Dietrich.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

            Counts
            Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 1, References: 93, Pages: 13, Words: 13017
            Categories
            Neuroscience
            Hypothesis and Theory Article

            Neurosciences

            cable model, dendrites, calcium signaling, synapses, ng2 cell

            Comments

            Comment on this article