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      Transarterial Chemoembolization Combined with Sorafenib in Patients with BCLC Stage C Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and targeted therapy have become common methods in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TACE combined with sorafenib (TACE-sorafenib) and TACE alone for the treatment of Barcelona clinical stage C HCC.

          Methods

          The clinical data of 75 patients with BCLC stage C HCC who received TACE-sorafenib or TACE as the initial treatment were retrospectively analyzed. Tumor response, time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and adverse events were compared at 1 month after surgery in the two groups.

          Results

          One month after treatment, the disease control rate in the TACE-sorafenib group was higher than that in the TACE group alone (82.76% and 57.50%, respectively, P = 0.018). The median values of TTP and OS in the TACE-sorafenib group were longer than those in the TACE group (TTP was 7.6 and 3.4 months, respectively, P = 0.002; OS was 13.6 and 6.3 months, respectively, P = 0.041). The cumulative survival time at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year was higher in the TACE-sorafenib group than in the TACE group (83.5%, 71.2%, 45.7% vs 57.4%, 40.6%, 21.2%). Sorafenib-related side effects such as hypertension, hand-foot syndrome, and oral ulcers were more common than those in the TACE group alone (P<0.05).

          Conclusion

          Compared with TACE treatment alone, TACE combined with sorafenib in BCLC-C stage HCC significantly improved disease control rate, TTP, and OS, and no significant increase in adverse reactions was observed.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Phase III study of sorafenib after transarterial chemoembolisation in Japanese and Korean patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

          In Japan and South Korea, transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) is an important locoregional treatment for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, has been shown effective and safe in patients with advanced HCC. This phase III trial assessed the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in Japanese and Korean patients with unresectable HCC who responded to TACE. Patients (n=458) with unresectable HCC, Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis and ≥25% tumour necrosis/shrinkage 1-3 months after 1 or 2 TACE sessions were randomised 1:1 to sorafenib 400mg bid or placebo and treated until progression/recurrence or unacceptable toxicity. Primary end-point was time to progression/recurrence (TTP). Secondary end-point was overall survival (OS). Baseline characteristics in the two groups were similar; >50% of patients started sorafenib>9 weeks after TACE. Median TTP in the sorafenib and placebo groups was 5.4 and 3.7 months, respectively (hazard ratio (HR), 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-1.09; P=0.252). HR (sorafenib/placebo) for OS was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.69-1.64; P=0.790). Median daily dose of sorafenib was 386 mg, with 73% of patients having dose reductions and 91% having dose interruptions. Median administration of sorafenib and placebo was 17.1 and 20.1 weeks, respectively. No unexpected adverse events were observed. This trial, conducted prior to the reporting of registrational phase III trials, found that sorafenib did not significantly prolong TTP in patients who responded to TACE. This may have been due to delays in starting sorafenib after TACE and/or low daily sorafenib doses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The role of hepatic resection in the treatment of hepatocellular cancer.

            Current guidelines recommend surgical resection as the primary treatment for a single hepatocellular cancer (HCC) with Child's A cirrhosis, normal serum bilirubin, and no clinically significant portal hypertension. We determined how frequently guidelines were followed and whether straying from them impacted survival. BRIDGE is a multiregional cohort study including HCC patients diagnosed between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2011. A total of 8,656 patients from 20 sites were classified into four groups: (A) 718 ideal resection candidates who were resected; (B) 144 ideal resection candidates who were not resected; (C) 1,624 nonideal resection candidates who were resected; and (D) 6,170 nonideal resection candidates who were not resected. Median follow-up was 27 months. Log-rank and Cox's regression analyses were conducted to determine differences between groups and variables associated with survival. Multivariate analysis of all ideal candidates for resection (A+B) revealed a higher risk of mortality with treatments other than resection. For all resected patients (A+C), portal hypertension and bilirubin >1 mg/dL were not associated with mortality. For all patients who were not ideal candidates for resection (C+D), resection was associated with better survival, compared to embolization and "other" treatments, but was inferior to ablation and transplantation.
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              Phase II study of concurrent transarterial chemoembolization and sorafenib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

              Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an important palliative treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but TACE-induced ischemic injury can upregulate angiogenic factors and is associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of concurrent conventional TACE and sorafenib in patients with unresectable HCC. The primary objectives of this prospective, single-arm, phase II study were to evaluate safety and time to progression (TTP). Sorafenib was given 3 days after TACE and was administered for up to 24 weeks. Repeated TACE was performed on demand. Tumor response was assessed every 8 weeks. Fifty patients were treated and followed from July 2009 to May 2011. All patients were in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B (82%) or C (18%). The median time of follow-up was 14.9 months and a median of 1 TACE session was given (range, 1-4). The median dose intensity of sorafenib was 68.7% (range, 37.3-100) of 800 mg daily. The most common reasons for dose reduction were hand-foot syndrome and thrombocytopenia. Thirty patients completed the study and 17 patients discontinued sorafenib due to disease progression. The overall median TTP was 7.1 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.8-7.5 months): 7.3 months in BCLC stage B; 5.0 months in BCLC stage C. The 6-month progression-free survival rate was 52% (95% CI, 37.3-66.1). Concurrent treatment of unresectable HCC with conventional TACE and sorafenib demonstrates a manageable safety profile and a possibility of promising efficacy. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                25 August 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 3461-3468
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Infection Hospital, Anhui Provincial Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China , Hefei 230000, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China , Hefei, Anhui 230022, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China , Hefei, Anhui 230022, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China , Hefei, Anhui 230022, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wei-Fu Lv Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China , Hefei, Anhui230022, People’s Republic of China Tel/Fax +86 551 6228 3139 Email weifulv@ustc.edu.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                248850
                10.2147/DDDT.S248850
                7457560
                © 2020 Liu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 27, Pages: 8
                Funding
                Funded by: the Natural Science Project of Anhui Province of China;
                This work was supported by the Natural Science Project of Anhui Province of China (No. 1808085MH254).
                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                sorafenib, hepatocellular carcinoma, tace, survival

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