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      Bisphenol A and Phthalates: How Environmental Chemicals Are Reshaping Toxicology

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      Toxicological Sciences

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Most cited references 22

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          Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife.

          Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g(-1) to microg g(-1). Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub microg l(-1) to mg l(-1) and were correlated with the level of economic development.
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            Phthalates: toxicology and exposure.

            Phthalates are used as plasticizers in PVC plastics. As the phthalate plasticizers are not chemically bound to PVC, they can leach, migrate or evaporate into indoor air and atmosphere, foodstuff, other materials, etc. Consumer products containing phthalates can result in human exposure through direct contact and use, indirectly through leaching into other products, or general environmental contamination. Humans are exposed through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure during their whole lifetime, including intrauterine development. This paper presents an overview on current risk assessments done by expert panels as well as on exposure assessment data, based on ambient and on current human biomonitoring results. Some phthalates are reproductive and developmental toxicants in animals and suspected endocrine disruptors in humans. Exposure assessment via modelling ambient data give hints that the exposure of children to phthalates exceeds that in adults. Current human biomonitoring data prove that the tolerable intake of children is exceeded to a considerable degree, in some instances up to 20-fold. Very high exposures to phthalates can occur via medical treatment, i.e. via use of medical devices containing DEHP or medicaments containing DBP phthalate in their coating. Because of their chemical properties exposure to phthalates does not result in bioaccumulation. However, health concern is raised regarding the developmental and/or reproductive toxicity of phthalates, even in environmental concentrations.
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              Phthalates and human health.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Toxicological Sciences
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1096-6080
                1096-0929
                December 2018
                December 01 2018
                November 28 2018
                December 2018
                December 01 2018
                November 28 2018
                : 166
                : 2
                : 246-249
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802
                Article
                10.1093/toxsci/kfy232
                © 2018

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model

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