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      Úlcera de córnea: estudo retrospectivo de casos atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Translated title: Corneal ulcer: a retrospective study of a cases seen at the Hospital das Clínicas, Federal University of Espirito Santo

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          Abstract

          Objetivo: Identificar os principais agentes etiológicos das úlceras de córnea atendidas no principal centro de referência para esta moléstia no estado do Espírito Santo (Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes – HUCAM). Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de prontuários, identificados por meio dos registros do laboratório de microbiologia do HUCAM, dos casos de úlcera de córnea submetidos à coleta de material para análise microbiológica no período de janeiro de 2009 a junho de 2013. Resultados: Dos 398 casos foram estudados e o resultado da cultura foi positivo em 60% e negativo em 40% dos casos. A bacterioscopia foi positiva em 28%, negativa em 61% e não foi realizada em 11%. Dentre o total de exames, 16,3% foram classificados como material insuficiente para análise. O exame microbiológico, incluindo bacterioscopia e cultura, foi positivo em 250 exames (62,8%), sendo identificado bactérias em 48% dos casos, fungos em 17,6% e protozoários em 0,8%. Conclusão: Este trabalho identificou os principais agentes etiológicos envolvidos na UC atendidas no HUCAM. Desta forma, fornecemos subsídios para um melhor o diagnóstico presuntivo e condução mais apropriada do tratamento empírico inicial, quando indicado. As bactérias Gram-positivas e fungos filamentosos apresentam papel de destaque na etiologia das UC no ES.

          Translated abstract

          Purpose: To identify the major etiological agents of UC in the main referral center for this disease in the state of Espírito Santo (Hospital Universitario Cassiano Antonio de Moraes – HUCAM). Methods: This is a retrospective study of UC cases that underwent microbiological analysis from january 2009 to june 2013 at HUCAM. Results: Three hundred ninety-eight cases were studied. Microbiological cultures were positive in 60% and negative in 40% of cases. The Gram stain was positive in 28%, negative in 61% and was not performed in 11%.Among the total number of tests, 16.3% were classified as insufficient material for analysis.The microbiological examination, including gram stain and culture, was positive in 250 tests (62.8%). It was identified bacteria in 48%, fungi in 17.6% and protozoa in 0,8% of cases. Conclusions: The study identified the main etiological agents involved in the UC at HUCAM. Hence, it provides data that can help physicians to do a better presumptive diagnosis and a more appropirate initial empirical treatment when indicated. Gram positive bacteria and filamentous fungi have a prominent role in the etiology of UC in ES.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Fungal infections of the cornea.

           Pierre Thomas (2003)
          To describe key aspects of fungal infections of the cornea, which constitute an important eye problem in outdoor workers in tropical and subtropical regions. Review of published studies and personal observations. Fungal infections of the cornea are frequently caused by species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Curvularia, and Candida. Trauma is the most important predisposing cause; ocular and systemic defects and prior application of corticosteroids are also important risk factors. Culture remains the cornerstone of diagnosis; direct microscopic detection of fungal structures in corneal scrapes or biopsies permits a rapid presumptive diagnosis. A variety of antifungals have been evaluated in therapy of this condition. Natamycin can only be given topically, while amphotericin B, miconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole can be administered by various routes. Topical amphotericin B (0.1-0.3%) is frequently the treatment of choice for infections due to Candida and related fungi, while topical natamycin (5%) is the choice for keratitis due to filamentous fungi. Medical therapy may fail, necessitating surgical intervention. Fungal infections of the cornea continue to be an important cause of ocular morbidity, particularly in the agricultural communities of the developing world. A proper understanding of agent and host factors involved in these infections will improve the outcome of this condition.
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            Aetiology of suppurative corneal ulcers in Ghana and south India, and epidemiology of fungal keratitis.

            A multicentre study was carried out in Ghana and southern India to determine the aetiology of suppurative keratitis in two regions located at similar tropical latitudes. Studies of fungal keratitis from the literature were reviewed. Patients presenting at rural and urban eye units with suspected microbial keratitis were recruited to the study. Corneal ulceration was defined as loss of corneal epithelium with clinical evidence of infection with or without hypopyon. Microscopy and culture were performed on all corneal specimens obtained. 1090 patients were recruited with suspected microbial keratitis between June 1999 and May 2001. Overall the principal causative micro-organisms in both regions were filamentous fungi (42%): Fusarium species and Aspergillus species were the commonest fungal isolates. Pseudomonas species were most frequently isolated from cases of bacterial keratitis in Ghana but in India the commonest bacterial isolates were streptococci. Infections of the cornea due to filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage in developing countries in the tropics and are difficult to treat. Microscopy is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. A knowledge of the "local" aetiology within a region is of value in the management of suppurative keratitis in the event that microscopy cannot be performed.
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              The epidemiological features and laboratory results of fungal keratitis: a 10-year review at a referral eye care center in South India.

              To report the epidemiological features and laboratory results of 1,352 cases of fungal keratitis diagnosed at the L.V. Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI) in south India. The medical and microbiology records of 1,352 culture proven cases (1,354 eyes) of fungal keratitis diagnosed at the LVPEI between January 1991 to December 2000 was retrospectively reviewed for demographic features, risk factors, seasonal variation, and laboratory findings. Males (962) were affected significantly more (p< 0.0001) than females (390). Of 1,352 patients, 853 (64.4%) were in the younger age group (16-49 years). Ocular trauma predisposed to infection in 736 (54.4%) of 1,354 eyes. There was a higher incidence of fungal keratitis during the monsoon and winter than summer. A fungal cause was established by smears of corneal scrapings in 1,277 (95.4%) eyes. The potassium hydroxide preparation (KOH), Calcofluor white (CFW), Gram-, and Giemsa-stained smears revealed fungus in 1,219 (91.0%), 1,224 (91.4%), 1,181 (88.2%), and 1,139 (85.1%) eyes, respectively. Fusarium(506, 37.2%) and Aspergillus species (417, 30.7%) predominated the hyaline fungal spectrum (1,133) and Curvularia species (39, 2.8%) were the highest among the dematiaceous isolates (218). To the best of our knowledge, this review presents the epidemiological features and laboratory results of the largest series of fungal keratitis ever reported in the literature. Keratomycosis is predominant in young adults with trauma as the major predisposing factor. With fungal keratitis being a major ophthalmologic problem in the tropical regions of the world, data available on the epidemiological features of a large series would greatly help medical practitioners at primary and secondary health care centers in the management of the disease. A simple KOH preparation of corneal scraping alone is highly beneficial in confirming the diagnosis.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Brazil
                [2 ] Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão Brasil
                [3 ] Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Brazil
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbof
                Revista Brasileira de Oftalmologia
                Rev. bras.oftalmol.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Oftalmologia (Rio de Janeiro )
                1982-8551
                April 2015
                : 74
                : 2
                : 76-80
                S0034-72802015000200076 10.5935/0034-7280.20150018

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                OPHTHALMOLOGY

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