Background: Hemodialysis vascular access infections are most frequently caused by Staphylococcus spp. The purpose of this study was to determine if S. aureus growth is enhanced after administration of IV iron sucrose and to establish a relationship between the appearance of non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) and S. aureus growth. Methods: Serum samples were obtained from 12 hemodialysis patients receiving maintenance doses of 100 mg of iron sucrose at baseline and 5, 30, 90, 220 min and 48 h after iron administration. Assays for NTBI and transferrin saturation were performed. S. aureus isolates were used to inoculate patient serum samples. Bacterial growth was determined by optical density. Results: Six of 12 patients had NTBI present within 30 min of the iron dose. NTBI was present more frequently in patients with baseline transferrin saturation values >30% (p < 0.05). Bacterial growth was significantly greater in patients who had NTBI present at 5, 90 and 220 min after iron administration compared to those who did not have NTBI present. Conclusions: Doses of 100 mg of iron sucrose are associated with the presence of NTBI and enhanced S. aureus growth.