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      Using Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography-Derived Parameters to Discriminate between Eyes with and without Glaucoma: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study

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          Introduction: New technologies have been developed in order to decrease interpersonal influence and subjectivity during the glaucoma diagnosis process. Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain OCT (EDI OCT) has turned up as a favorable tool for deep optic nerve head (ONH) structures assessment. Objective: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the diagnostic performance of different EDI OCT-derived parameters to discriminate between eyes with and without glaucoma. Material and Methods: The following ONH parameters were measured: lamina cribrosa (LC) thickness and area; prelaminar neural tissue (PLNT) thickness and area; average Bruch’s membrane opening – minimum rim width (BMO-MRW), superior BMO-MRW, and inferior BMO-MRW. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness was also obtained. Results: Seventy-three participants were included. There were no significant differences between AUCs for average BMO-MRW (0.995), PLNT area (0.968), and average pRNFL thickness (0.975; p ≥ 0.089). However, AUCs for each of these 3 parameters were significantly larger than LC area AUC (0.701; p ≤ 0.001). Sensitivities at 80% specificity were: PLNT area = 92.3%, average BMO-MRW = 97.4%, and average pRNFL thickness = 94.9%. Conclusions: Comparing the diagnostic performance of different EDI OCT ONH parameters to discriminate between eyes with and without glaucoma, we found better results for neural tissue-based indexes (BMO-MRW and PLNT area) compared to laminar parameters. In this specific population, these neural tissue-based parameters (including PLNT area, which was investigated by the first time in the present study) had a diagnostic performance comparable to that of the conventional pRNFL thickness protocol.

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          The pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma: a review.

          Glaucoma is a worldwide leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Because it may be asymptomatic until a relatively late stage, diagnosis is frequently delayed. A general understanding of the disease pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment may assist primary care physicians in referring high-risk patients for comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and in more actively participating in the care of patients affected by this condition. To describe current evidence regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and manuscript references for studies published in English between January 2000 and September 2013 on the topics open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. From the 4334 abstracts screened, 210 articles were selected that contained information on pathophysiology and treatment with relevance to primary care physicians. The glaucomas are a group of progressive optic neuropathies characterized by degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and resulting changes in the optic nerve head. Loss of ganglion cells is related to the level of intraocular pressure, but other factors may also play a role. Reduction of intraocular pressure is the only proven method to treat the disease. Although treatment is usually initiated with ocular hypotensive drops, laser trabeculoplasty and surgery may also be used to slow disease progression. Primary care physicians can play an important role in the diagnosis of glaucoma by referring patients with positive family history or with suspicious optic nerve head findings for complete ophthalmologic examination. They can improve treatment outcomes by reinforcing the importance of medication adherence and persistence and by recognizing adverse reactions from glaucoma medications and surgeries.
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            Enhanced depth imaging detects lamina cribrosa thickness differences in normal tension glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

            To confirm the advantages of the enhanced depth imaging (EDI) mode over the standard mode of the Heidelberg Spectralis spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for imaging of the lamina cribrosa, and to compare laminar thicknesses of various glaucoma types with or without disc hemorrhage in a similar state of visual field loss. Cross-sectional, case-control design. We included 137 glaucoma patients and 49 healthy controls. Optic nerve head B-scans were obtained by both the standard and EDI modes of the Spectralis OCT. Laminar thickness was measured at the center of mid-superior, central, and mid-inferior horizontal B-scans. Laminar thickness in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) was compared with that in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). To verify the reproducibility of EDI imaging, intraclass correlation coefficients and test-retest variability were calculated from selected B-scans. Laminar thickness and mean deviation values on standard automatic perimetry. The EDI OCT imaging showed significantly better intraobserver, interobserver, intravisit, and intervisit reproducibility than those by standard imaging. Laminar thickness in mid-superior, central, and mid-inferior regions was thinner in the POAG and NTG groups than in the normal control group (P<0.001). The mid-superior, central, and mid-inferior regions of the lamina were also significantly thinner in patients with NTG and disc hemorrhage than in those with NTG but no disc hemorrhage. The EDI mode of the Heidelberg Spectralis SD-OCT detected differences in the lamina cribrosa by glaucoma type. The lamina cribrosa was thinner in NTG eyes and in NTG eyes with disc hemorrhage. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Enhanced detection of open-angle glaucoma with an anatomically accurate optical coherence tomography-derived neuroretinal rim parameter.

              Neuroretinal rim assessment based on the clinical optic disc margin (DM) lacks a sound anatomic basis for 2 reasons: (1) The DM is not reliable as the outer border of rim tissue because of clinically and photographically invisible extensions of Bruch's membrane (BM) inside the DM and (2) nonaccountability of rim tissue orientation in the optic nerve head (ONH). The BM opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) is a parameter that quantifies the rim from its true anatomic outer border, BMO, and accounts for its variable orientation. We report the diagnostic capability of BMO-MRW. Case control. Patients with open-angle glaucoma (n = 107) and healthy controls (n = 48). Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with 24 radial and 1 circumpapillary B-scans, centered on the ONH, and confocal scanning laser tomography (CSLT) were performed. The internal limiting membrane (ILM) and BMO were manually segmented in each radial B-scan. Three SD-OCT parameters were computed globally and sectorally: (1) circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT); (2) BMO-horizontal rim width (BMO-HRW), the distance between BMO and ILM in the BMO reference plane; and (3) BMO-MRW, the minimum distance between BMO and ILM. Moorfields Regression Analysis (MRA) with CLST was performed globally and sectorally to yield MRA1 and MRA2, where "borderline" was classified as normal and abnormal, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LRs) for positive and negative test results (LR+/LR-). The median (interquartile range) age and mean deviation of patients and controls were 69.9 (64.3-76.9) and 65.0 (58.1-74.3) years and -3.92 (-7.87 to -1.62) and 0.33 (-0.32 to 0.98) dB, respectively. Globally, BMO-MRW yielded better diagnostic performance than the other parameters. At 95% specificity, the sensitivity of RNFLT, BMO-HRW, and BMO-MRW was 70%, 51%, and 81%, respectively. The corresponding LR+/LR- was 14.0/0.3, 10.2/0.5, and 16.2/0.2. Sectorally, at 95% specificity, the sensitivity of RNFLT ranged from 31% to 59%, of BMO-HRW ranged from 35% to 64%, and of BMO-MRW ranged from 54% to 79%. Globally and in all sectors, BMO-MRW performed better than MRA1 or MRA2. The higher sensitivity at 95% specificity in early glaucoma of BMO-MRW compared with current BMO methods is significant, indicating a new structural marker for the detection and risk profiling of glaucoma. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Ophthalmic Res
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                February 2021
                26 May 2020
                : 64
                : 1
                : 108-115
                aGlaucoma Service, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
                bGlaucoma Unit, Hospital Medicina dos Olhos, Osasco, Brazil
                cDepartment of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA
                Author notes
                *Syril K. Dorairaj, Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (USA), dorairaj.syril@mayo.edu
                508952 Ophthalmic Res 2021;64:108–115
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 8
                Research Article


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