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      Impact of BMI on Cardiovascular Events, Renal Function, and Coronary Artery Calcification

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: High BMI increases the risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs) in the general population. Conflicting results have been reported on the role of BMI on CVEs and on decline of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis (CKD). This study evaluates the impact of BMI on CVEs, dialysis initiation, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in CKD patients. Methods: CKD patients were divided in normal-BMI and high-BMI patients. CVEs, initiation of dialysis, and extent and progression of CAC were assessed. Univariate and multivariable analysis were performed (adjustment variables: age, diabetes, hypertension, gender, CKD stage, serum concentration of hemoglobin, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, albumin, C-reactive protein, LDL-cholesterol, total calcium score, 24-hour proteinuria). Patients were followed to the first event (CVE, dialysis) or for 2 years. Results: 471 patients were evaluated. A CVE occurred in 13.5 and 21.3% (p < 0.05) of normal-BMI and high-BMI patients, respectively. High BMI did not increase the risk for CVEs in univariate (HR: 1.86; 95% CI: 0.97-3.54; p = 0.06) or multivariable analysis (HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.57-3.14; p = 0.50). High BMI did not increase the risk for initiation of dialysis in univariate (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.58-1.60; p = 0.9) or multivariable analysis (HR: 1.77; 95% CI: 0.82-3.81; p = 0.14). Adding the interaction term (between BMI and glomerular filtration rate) to other variables, the risk of dialysis initiation significantly increased (HR: 3.06; 95% CI: 1.31-7.18; p = 0.01) in high-BMI patients. High BMI was not a predictor of CAC extent or progression. Conclusions: High BMI was not a predictor of CVEs. High BMI increased the risk for dialysis initiation, but high BMI was not associated to CAC extent and progression. The presence of confounders may underestimate the impact of high BMI on dialysis initiation.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among US Adults

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            Body mass index and the risk of development of end-stage renal disease in a screened cohort.

            Obesity is associated with proteinuria and could be a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, few studies have examined the significance of body mass index (BMI) as a risk factor for the development of ESRD in the general population. We examined the relationship between BMI and the development of ESRD using data from a 1983 community-based screening in Okinawa, Japan. Screenees who developed ESRD by the end of 2000 were identified through the Okinawa Dialysis Study registry. BMI data were available for 100,753 screenees (47,504 men and 53,249 women) aged >/=20 years. The cumulative incidence of ESRD was analyzed according to the quartile of BMI: /=25.5 kg/m(2). The mean (SD) BMI of the screenees was 23.4 (3.3) kg/m(2) (range 7.9 to 59.1 kg/m(2)); the mean was 23.4 kg/m(2) for both men and women. During the follow-up period, 404 screenees (232 men and 172 women) developed ESRD. The cumulative incidences of ESRD per 1000 screenees were, from the lowest to highest BMI quartile, 2.48, 3.79, 3.86, and 5.81. The odds ratio (95% CI) of BMI for developing ESRD, after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and proteinuria, was 1.273 (1.121-1.446, P= 0.0002) for men and 0.950 (0.825-1.094, not significant) for women. We found that BMI was associated with an increased risk of the development of ESRD in men in the general population in Okinawa. The maintenance of optimal body weight may reduce the risk of ESRD.
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              Association between obesity and kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

               Y Wang,  X. Chen,  Y. Song (2008)
              This study aimed to comprehensively assess epidemiologic evidence on the relation between obesity and kidney disease (KD). From 247 retrieved articles via PubMed (1980-2006), 25 cohorts, 3 cross-sectional, and 19 case-control studies met inclusion criteria. Related data were extracted using a standardized protocol. We estimated the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of KD for each body mass index (BMI) category compared with normal weight using meta-analysis models. Population attributable risk was also calculated. Compared with normal-weight individuals (18.5
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2014
                November 2014
                04 September 2014
                : 38
                : 1
                : 1-6
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNephrology and bRadiology, University of Naples ‘Federico II', Naples, cNephrology Unit, ‘G. Rummo' Hospital, Benevento, d‘Magna Graecia' University, Catanzaro, and eNephrology Unit, ‘A. Landolfi' Hospital, Solofra, Avellino, Italy
                Author notes
                *Prof. Domenico Russo, Department of Nephrology, University of Naples ‘Federico II', Via S. Pansini, 5, IT-80131 Napoli (Italy), E-Mail domenicorusso51@hotmail.com, Luigi Francesco Morrone, Nephrology Unit, ‘G. Rummo' Hospital, IT-82100 Benevento (Italy), E-Mail lfmorrone@gmail.com
                Article
                362862 Blood Purif 2014;38:1-6
                10.1159/000362862
                25196674
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

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