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      Retrospective analysis of estrogen receptor 1 and N-acetyltransferase gene expression in normal breast tissue, primary breast tumors, and established breast cancer cell lines

      1 , 2 , 1 , 2

      International Journal of Oncology

      D.A. Spandidos

      NAT1, NAT2, ESR1, breast cancer, TCGA, CCLE

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          The expression levels of estrogen receptor 1 ( ESR1), arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 ( NAT1), and arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 ( NAT2) are implicated in breast cancer; however, their co-expression profiles in normal breast tissue, primary breast tumors and established breast cancer cell lines are undefined. NAT1 expression is widely reported to be associated with ESR1 expression and is frequently investigated in breast cancer etiology. Furthermore, the NAT2 phenotype has been reported to modify breast cancer risk in molecular epidemiological association studies. Understanding the relationships between the expression levels of these genes is essential to understand their role in breast cancer etiology and treatment. In the present study, NAT1, NAT2 and ESR1 expression data were accessed from repositories of RNA-Seq data covering 57 breast cancer cell lines, 1,043 primary breast tumors and 99 normal breast tissues. The relationships between gene expression, and between NAT1 activity and RNA expression in breast cancer cell lines were evaluated using non-parametric statistical analyses. Differences in gene expression in each dataset, as well as gene expression differences in normal breast tissue compared to primary breast tumors, and stratification by estrogen receptor status were determined. NAT1 and NAT2 mRNA expression were detected in normal and primary breast tumor tissues; NAT1 expression was much higher than NAT2. NAT1 and ESR1 expression were strongly associated, whereas NAT2 and ESR1 expression were not. Although NAT1 and NAT2 expression were associated, the magnitude was moderate. NAT1, NAT2, and ESR1 expression were increased in primary breast tumor tissue compared with normal breast tissue; however, the magnitude and significance of the differences were lower for NAT2. Analysis of NAT1, NAT2, and ESR1 expression in normal and primary breast tissues and breast cancer cell lines suggested that NAT1 and NAT2 expression are regulated by distinctive mechanisms, whereas NAT1 and ESR1 expression may have overlapping regulation. Defining these relationships is important for future investigations into breast cancer prevention.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Distinctive gene expression patterns in human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancers.

          cDNA microarrays and a clustering algorithm were used to identify patterns of gene expression in human mammary epithelial cells growing in culture and in primary human breast tumors. Clusters of coexpressed genes identified through manipulations of mammary epithelial cells in vitro also showed consistent patterns of variation in expression among breast tumor samples. By using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against proteins encoded by a particular gene in a cluster, the identity of the cell type within the tumor specimen that contributed the observed gene expression pattern could be determined. Clusters of genes with coherent expression patterns in cultured cells and in the breast tumors samples could be related to specific features of biological variation among the samples. Two such clusters were found to have patterns that correlated with variation in cell proliferation rates and with activation of the IFN-regulated signal transduction pathway, respectively. Clusters of genes expressed by stromal cells and lymphocytes in the breast tumors also were identified in this analysis. These results support the feasibility and usefulness of this systematic approach to studying variation in gene expression patterns in human cancers as a means to dissect and classify solid tumors.
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              Different gene expression patterns in invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas of the breast.

              Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) are the two major histological types of breast cancer worldwide. Whereas IDC incidence has remained stable, ILC is the most rapidly increasing breast cancer phenotype in the United States and Western Europe. It is not clear whether IDC and ILC represent molecularly distinct entities and what genes might be involved in the development of these two phenotypes. We conducted comprehensive gene expression profiling studies to address these questions. Total RNA from 21 ILCs, 38 IDCs, two lymph node metastases, and three normal tissues were amplified and hybridized to approximately 42,000 clone cDNA microarrays. Data were analyzed using hierarchical clustering algorithms and statistical analyses that identify differentially expressed genes (significance analysis of microarrays) and minimal subsets of genes (prediction analysis for microarrays) that succinctly distinguish ILCs and IDCs. Eleven of 21 (52%) of the ILCs ("typical" ILCs) clustered together and displayed different gene expression profiles from IDCs, whereas the other ILCs ("ductal-like" ILCs) were distributed between different IDC subtypes. Many of the differentially expressed genes between ILCs and IDCs code for proteins involved in cell adhesion/motility, lipid/fatty acid transport and metabolism, immune/defense response, and electron transport. Many genes that distinguish typical and ductal-like ILCs are involved in regulation of cell growth and immune response. Our data strongly suggest that over half the ILCs differ from IDCs not only in histological and clinical features but also in global transcription programs. The remaining ILCs closely resemble IDCs in their transcription patterns. Further studies are needed to explore the differences between ILC molecular subtypes and to determine whether they require different therapeutic strategies.

                Author and article information

                Int J Oncol
                Int. J. Oncol
                International Journal of Oncology
                D.A. Spandidos
                August 2018
                11 June 2018
                11 June 2018
                : 53
                : 2
                : 694-702
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine
                [2 ]James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Ms. Samantha M. Carlisle, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 505 South Hancock Street, Louisville, KY 40202, USA, E-mail: samantha.carlisle@
                Copyright: © Carlisle et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.


                nat1, ccle, tcga, breast cancer, esr1, nat2


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