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      Description of two new species of the genus Cacopsylla Ossiannilsson, 1970 (Hemiptera, Psylloidea) from northern Fennoscandia recognized by morphology, cytogenetic characters and COI barcode sequence

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          Based on chromosomal, molecular and morphological analyses, two new Cacopsylla Ossiannilsson, 1970 species are described, C. lapponica S. Nokkala & Ch. Nokkala, sp. nov. and C. borealis S. Nokkala et Ch. Nokkala, sp. nov. ( Hemiptera , Psylloidea ). C. lapponica is a rare bisexual alpine species living on Vaccinium uliginosum Linnaeus, 1753 above tree line on northern hills, where it forms sympatric populations with C. myrtilli W. Wagner, 1947. So far, the species has been found in northern Finland, Utsjoki and Kilpisjärvi, and in northern Sweden, Abisko. The chromosome number in males is 2n = 12+X(0), characteristic of psyllids. The species is easily distinguished from C. myrtilli by its conspicuously smaller size mainly due to difference in wing size. Additional morphological differences are found in the length of antennae, female genital plates and male parameres. C. borealis , in turn, is a relatively common apomictic parthenogenetic species with 5n = 60 + XXXXX living on the same host plant, Ledum palustre Linnaeus, 1753, as C. ledi (Flor, 1861) and occasionally forming sympatric populations with it. No males have been recorded in C. borealis . Its distribution range reaches at least from northern Fennoscandia to Lake Baikal in the East. C. borealis can be distinguished from C. ledi by differences in the length and width of antennae, dark brown markings on the wing and female terminal structures. For molecular analysis, a 638 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene was sequenced. C. lapponica differs from the cohabitating C. myrtilli by 20 fixed nucleotide substitutions (uncor rected p-distance 3.13 %), while C. borealis differs from C. ledi by 21 fixed nucleotide substitutions (uncorrected p-distance 3.29 %). Molecular phylogeny construction (ML and BI) reveals two highly divergent clades, one comprising two bisexual species, C. lapponica and C. fraudatrix Labina & Kuznetsova, 2012, and the other clade comprising the parthenogenetic species C. borealis , C. myrtilli , and C. ledi . Within this clade, C. borealis is more closely associated with C. myrtilli than with C. ledi .

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          Most cited references 8

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          Hybridization, glaciation and geographical parthenogenesis.

          Parthenogenetic organisms are all female and reproduce clonally. The transition from sex to parthenogenesis is frequently associated with a major change in geographical distribution, often biasing parthenogenetic lineages towards environments that were severely affected by the glacial cycles of the Late Pleistocene. It is difficult to interpret these patterns as arising simply as a result of selection for the demographic effects of parthenogenesis because many parthenogenetic organisms are also hybrids. Here, I argue that many cases of geographical parthenogenesis might be best seen as part of a broader pattern of hybrid advantage in new and open environments. Parthenogenesis in these cases could have a more secondary role of stabilizing strongly selected hybrid genotypes. In this context, geographical parthenogenesis might tell us more about the role of hybridization in evolution than about the role of sex.
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            Rare diploid females coexist with rare males: a novel finding in triploid parthenogenetic populations in the psyllid Cacopsylla myrtilli (W. Wagner, 1947) (Hemiptera, Psylloidea) in northern Europe

            Using a cytological approach, diploid females were found coexisting with rare males in triploid apomictic parthenogenetic populations of the psyllid Cacopsylla myrtilli (W. Wagner, 1947) in Norway, Sweden, Finland and northwest Russia. Diploid females were easily distinguished from triploid apomictic females by the presence of 13 chiasmate bivalents instead of 39 univalent chromosomes at metaphase I. Abundance equaled that of males, but the proportion of males and diploid females was significantly greater in high altitude compared with low altitude populations. Males mated with females but showed no mating preference for diploid females. Lack of genuine bisexual reproduction owing to either asynaptic meiosis in males, or rarity of males with normal meiosis, suggests that diploids are produced in every generation by parthenogenetic females as reversals from triploidy, with their production being enhanced by environmental factor(s) associated with high altitude. This is further supported by the observation that within a population the COI haplotype found in rare males was the same as that in parthenogenetic triploid females. Thus, in northern Europe parthenogenesis in C. myrtilli is obligate, geographic parthenogenesis. Bisexual populations of C. myrtilli should be looked for in Central and Southern Europe. From the evolutionary point of view, the presence of males and diploid females with normal meiosis in parthenogenetic populations could be significant as they exhibit the potential to re-evolve either a new sexual species of parthenogenetic ancestry or a new parthenogenetic species by contagious parthenogenesis.
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              The Psylloidea (Homoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                8
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:A71ED5FC-60ED-5DA3-AC8E-F6D2BB5B3573
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C8FA3ADA-5585-4F26-9215-A520EE683979
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                1993-0771
                1993-078X
                2019
                19 November 2019
                : 13
                : 4
                : 367-382
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratory of Genetics, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland
                [2 ] Department of Karyosystematics, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya nab. 1, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia
                [3 ] Zoological Museum, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Christina Nokkala ( chrinok@ 123456utu.fi )

                Academic editor: V. Lukhtanov

                Article
                47395
                10.3897/CompCytogen.v13i4.47395
                6879664
                Christina Nokkala, Valentina G. Kuznetsova, Veikko Rinne, Seppo Nokkala

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Hemiptera
                Psyllidae
                Karyosystematics
                Molecular Systematics
                Phylogeny
                Taxonomy
                Neogene
                Finland
                Norway incl. Finnmark
                Russia
                Sweden

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