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      Systemic enrichment of antifungal traits in the rhizosphere microbiome after pathogen attack

      1 , 2 , 3

      Journal of Ecology

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 37

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          Assessment of soil microbial community structure by use of taxon-specific quantitative PCR assays.

          Here we describe a quantitative PCR-based approach to estimating the relative abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and fungi in soil. Primers were thoroughly tested for specificity, and the method was applied to three distinct soils. The technique provides a rapid and robust index of microbial community structure.
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            Plant disease: a threat to global food security.

            A vast number of plant pathogens from viroids of a few hundred nucleotides to higher plants cause diseases in our crops. Their effects range from mild symptoms to catastrophes in which large areas planted to food crops are destroyed. Catastrophic plant disease exacerbates the current deficit of food supply in which at least 800 million people are inadequately fed. Plant pathogens are difficult to control because their populations are variable in time, space, and genotype. Most insidiously, they evolve, often overcoming the resistance that may have been the hard-won achievement of the plant breeder. In order to combat the losses they cause, it is necessary to define the problem and seek remedies. At the biological level, the requirements are for the speedy and accurate identification of the causal organism, accurate estimates of the severity of disease and its effect on yield, and identification of its virulence mechanisms. Disease may then be minimized by the reduction of the pathogen's inoculum, inhibition of its virulence mechanisms, and promotion of genetic diversity in the crop. Conventional plant breeding for resistance has an important role to play that can now be facilitated by marker-assisted selection. There is also a role for transgenic modification with genes that confer resistance. At the political level, there is a need to acknowledge that plant diseases threaten our food supplies and to devote adequate resources to their control.
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              Soil pathogens and spatial patterns of seedling mortality in a temperate tree.

              The Janzen-Connell hypothesis proposes that host-specific, distance- and/or density-dependent predators and herbivores maintain high tree diversity in tropical forests. Negative feedback between plant and soil communities could be a more effective mechanism promoting species coexistence because soil pathogens can increase rapidly in the presence of their host, causing conditions unfavourable for local conspecific recruitment. Here we show that a soil pathogen leads to patterns of seedling mortality in a temperate tree (Prunus serotina) as predicted by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. In the field, the mean distance to parent of seedling cohorts shifted away from maternal trees over a period of 3 years. Seedlings were grown in soil collected 0-5 m or 25-30 m from Prunus trees. Sterilization of soil collected beneath trees improved seedling survival relative to unsterilized soil, whereas sterilization of distant soil did not affect survival. Pythium spp., isolated from roots of dying seedlings and used to inoculate healthy seedlings, decreased survival by 65% relative to controls. Our results provide the most complete evidence that native pathogens influence tree distributions, as predicted by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis, and suggest that similar ecological mechanisms operate in tropical and temperate forests.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Ecology
                J Ecol
                Wiley
                00220477
                November 2016
                November 2016
                July 26 2016
                : 104
                : 6
                : 1566-1575
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nature Conservation and Landscape Ecology; Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences; University of Freiburg; Tennenbacher Straße 4 79106 Freiburg Germany
                [2 ]Animal Ecology; J. F. Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology; Georg August University Göttingen; Berliner Straße 28 37073 Göttingen Germany
                [3 ]Ecology and Biodiversity; Utrecht University; Padualaan 8 3584CH Utrecht The Netherlands
                Article
                10.1111/1365-2745.12626
                © 2016
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