Olga Chatzis 1 , Stephanie Darbre 2 , Jérôme Pasquier 3 , Pascal Meylan 4 , Oriol Manuel 5 , 6 , John David Aubert 7 , Maja Beck-Popovic 8 , Stavroula Masouridi-Levrat 9 , Marc Ansari 10 , Laurent Kaiser 11 , 12 , Klara M. Posfay-Barbe 1 , Sandra A. Asner , 1 , 5 , 13
6 March 2018
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is associated with significant mortality rates amongst hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, with less known about other immunocompromised patients.
Ten-year retrospective cohort study of immunocompromised patients presenting with RSV disease documented at University Hospitals of Lausanne and Geneva. Severe RSV-related outcomes referred to RSV documented respiratory conditions requiring hospital admission, presenting as lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) or pneumonia. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess clinical and laboratory correlates of severe RSV disease.
From 239 RSV-positive immunocompromised in and out-patients 175 were adults and 64 children of whom 111 (47.8%) presented with LRTI, which resulted in a 38% (89/239) admission rate to hospital. While immunocompromised children were more likely to be admitted to hospital compared to adults (75% vs 62.9%, p = 0.090), inpatients admitted to the intensive care unit (17/19) or those who died (11/11) were mainly adults. From multivariable analyses, adults with solid tumors (OR 5.2; 95% CI: 1.4–20.9 P = 0.015) or those requiring chronic immunosuppressive treatments mainly for rheumatologic conditions (OR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.1–16.0; P = 0.034) were significantly more likely to be admitted to hospital compared to hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) recipients. Bacterial co-infection was significantly and consistently associated with viral LRTI and pneumonia.
From our findings, RSV-related disease results in a significant burden among adults requiring chronic immunosuppressive treatments for rheumatological conditions and those with solid tumors. As such, systematic screening for respiratory viruses, should be extended to other immunocompromised populations than HSCT recipients.