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      Propriedades e aplicações recentes das ciclodextrinas Translated title: Properties and recent applications of cyclodextrins

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          Translated abstract

          Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides comprised of six or more glucose units connected by alpha-1,4 bonds. They have hydrophobic cavities with a hydrophilic exterior, and are versatile receptors for a variety of substrates. This ability allows them to be applied in many fields, as distinct as supramolecular chemistry, nanotechnology, pharmaceuticals, green chemistry, agrochemicals, analytical chemistry, toiletries, foods, and cosmetics. This review summarizes several aspects related to the physico-chemical properties of CDs and discusses their potential applications illustrated by recent examples. The prospects for their use in several areas are also described.

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          Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode.

          We report the label-free, real-time optical detection of Influenza A virus particles. Binding of single virions is observed from discrete changes in the resonance frequency/wavelength of a whispering-gallery mode excited in a microspherical cavity. We find that the magnitude of the discrete wavelength-shift signal can be sufficiently enhanced by reducing the microsphere size. A reactive sensing mechanism with inverse dependence on mode volume is confirmed in experiments with virus-sized polystyrene nanoparticles. By comparing the electromagnetic theory for this reactive effect with experiments, the size and mass ( approximately 5.2 x 10(-16) g) of a bound virion are determined directly from the optimal resonance shift.
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            Chlorophyll Breakdown in Senescent Banana Leaves: Catabolism Reprogrammed for Biosynthesis of Persistent Blue Fluorescent Tetrapyrroles

            Chlorophyll breakdown is a visual phenomenon of leaf senescence and fruit ripening. It leads to the formation of colorless chlorophyll catabolites, a group of (chlorophyll-derived bilin-type) linear tetrapyrroles. Here, analysis and structure elucidation of the chlorophyll breakdown products in leaves of banana (Musa acuminata) is reported. In senescent leaves of this monocot all chlorophyll catabolites identified were hypermodified fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (hmFCCs). Surprisingly, nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were not found, the often abundant and apparently typical final chlorophyll breakdown products in senescent leaves. As a rule, FCCs exist only fleetingly, and they isomerize rapidly to NCCs in the senescent plant cell. Amazingly, in the leaves of banana plants, persistent hmFCCs were identified that accounted for about 80 % of the chlorophyll broken down, and yellow leaves of M. acuminata display a strong blue luminescence. The structures of eight hmFCCs from banana leaves were analyzed by spectroscopic means. The massive accumulation of the hmFCCs in banana leaves, and their functional group characteristics, indicate a chlorophyll breakdown path, the downstream transformations of which are entirely reprogrammed towards the generation of persistent and blue fluorescent FCCs. As expressed earlier in related studies, the present findings call for attention, as to still elusive biological roles of these linear tetrapyrroles.
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              Supramolecular chemistry.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                qn
                Química Nova
                Quím. Nova
                Sociedade Brasileira de Química (São Paulo )
                1678-7064
                2008
                : 31
                : 2
                : 360-368
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Regional de Blumenau Brazil
                Article
                S0100-40422008000200032
                10.1590/S0100-40422008000200032
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

                General chemistry

                cyclodextrins, molecular recognition, inclusion complexes

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