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      Acetyl-L-carnitine activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivators PGC-1α/PGC-1β-dependent signaling cascade of mitochondrial biogenesis and decreases the oxidized peroxiredoxins content in old rat liver.

      Rejuvenation Research
      Acetylcarnitine, metabolism, Aging, Animals, Autophagy, DNA, Mitochondrial, Dietary Supplements, Liver, Male, Mitochondria, Oxidative Stress, PPAR gamma, Peroxiredoxins, RNA-Binding Proteins, Rats, Rats, Inbred F344, Signal Transduction, Superoxide Dismutase, Time Factors, Transcription Factors

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          The behavior of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivators PGC-1α/PGC-β-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway, as well as the level of some antioxidant enzymes and proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics in the liver of old rats before and after 2 months of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) supplementation, was tested. The results reveal that ALCAR treatment is able to reverse the age-associated decline of PGC-1α, PGC-1β, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX IV) protein levels, of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, and of citrate synthase activity. Moreover, it partially reverses the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) decline and reduces the cellular content of oxidized peroxiredoxins. These data demonstrate that ALCAR treatment is able to promote in the old rat liver a new mitochondrial population that can contribute to the cellular oxidative stress reduction. Furthermore, a remarkable decline of Drp1 and of Mfn2 proteins is reported here for the first time, suggesting a reduced mitochondrial dynamics in aging liver with no effect of ALCAR treatment.

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