The management of rivers and inland waterways in Japan is governed under the all-encompassing River Law which forms the basic legal framework for ensuring that rivers are maintained in a safe and proper manner. The River Law was first enacted in 1896, with the last major update occurring in 1964. This law holds the principle of flood management, river water utilisation, and maintaining and conserving the fluvial environment. While this would normally be a simple matter of ensuring that flow and cleanliness characteristics are maintained, the delicate eco-system is facing a further Ð and potentially severe Ð challenge with changes to climate and the problems that it represents. Japan, in line with countries around the world, is slowly warming up, and with those changes to climate come unpredictable changes to rainfall and that makes the management of waterways and river all the more important.