Prostaglandins have been shown to modulate the secretion of several pituitary hormones, suggesting that therapeutic doses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may change basal hormone levels. In this study, plasma levels of prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyrotropin and beta-endorphin were determined in 6 healthy men after administration of diclofenac, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. The subjects were given 75 mg intramuscularly and 50 mg orally at 08.00 h the first day, 50 mg orally at 08.00, 12.00 and 20.00 h the second day and an additional 50 mg orally at 08.00 h the third day. Blood samples were collected throughout these 3 days. Diclofenac resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in plasma level of prolactin (p < 0.005). The other hormones did not demonstrate significant change following diclofenac administration. These data suggest that administration of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, such as diclofenac, selectively alters basal pituitary secretion of prolactin in humans without a detectable effect on plasma levels of other pituitary hormones. This study supports the hypothesis that prostaglandins are necessary for maintaining basal level of prolactin secretion in man.