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      Polypharmacy leads to increased prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication in the Indonesian geriatric population visiting primary care facilities

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          Abstract

          Background

          The geriatric population is particularly vulnerable to being prescribed potentially inappropriate medication (PIM); however, the prevalence of this occurrence remains poorly investigated in Indonesia. Thus in this research, we focused on investigating the prevalence and predictors of PIM among the Indonesian geriatric population in a primary health care setting.

          Methods

          A retrospective observational study was conducted in 25 primary health care facilities in Karawang District, Indonesia. The medical prescriptions of patients aged ≥60 years during January–December 2014 were documented, and the PIM was assessed based on Beers and McLeod criteria. The influence of age, sex, number of diseases, and polypharmacy toward PIM was assessed using a logistic regression model. A P-value of <0.05 defined statistical significance.

          Results

          A total of 3,819 subjects were included in the study. PIM was highly prevalent (52.2%) among the Indonesian elderly. Chlorpheniramine, mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, and nifedipine were the most commonly prescribed PIM. Polypharmacy (odds ratio: 1.2 [0.6, 2.1]) was the only factor associated with the use of PIM, while sex, age, and multiple diseases did not show significant association.

          Conclusion

          PIM is a concern in the Indonesian geriatric population. Health care professionals are encouraged to review the medications of their geriatric patients using updated safety guidelines to prevent risks associated with PIM.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Appropriate prescribing in elderly people: how well can it be measured and optimised?

          Prescription of medicines is a fundamental component of the care of elderly people, and optimisation of drug prescribing for this group of patients has become an important public-health issue worldwide. Several characteristics of ageing and geriatric medicine affect medication prescribing for elderly people and render the selection of appropriate pharmacotherapy a challenging and complex process. In the first paper in this series we aim to define and categorise appropriate prescribing in elderly people, critically review the instruments that are available to measure it and discuss their predictive validity, critically review recent randomised controlled intervention studies that assessed the effect of optimisation strategies on the appropriateness of prescribing in elderly people, and suggest directions for future research and practice.
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            Potentially inappropriate medication use among elderly home care patients in Europe.

            Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use among elderly patients have been used in the past decade in large US epidemiological surveys to identify populations at risk and specifically target risk-management strategies. In contrast, in Europe little information is available about potentially inappropriate medication use and is based on small studies with uncertain generalizability. To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of potentially inappropriate medication use among elderly home care patients in European countries. Retrospective cross-sectional study of 2707 elderly patients receiving home care (mean [SD] age, 82.2 [ 7.2] years) representatively enrolled in metropolitan areas of the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Patients were prospectively assessed between September 2001 and January 2002 using the Minimum Data Set in Home Care instrument. Prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication use was documented using all expert panels criteria for community-living elderly persons (Beers and McLeod). Patient-related characteristics independently associated with inappropriate medication use were identified with a multiple logistic regression model. Combining all 3 sets of criteria, we found that 19.8% of patients in the total sample used at least 1 inappropriate medication; using older 1997 criteria it was 9.8% to 10.9%. Substantial differences were documented between Eastern Europe (41.1% in the Czech Republic) and Western Europe (mean 15.8%, ranging from 5.8% in Denmark to 26.5% in Italy). Potentially inappropriate medication use was associated with patient's poor economic situation (adjusted relative risk [RR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58-2.36), polypharmacy (RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.62- 2.22), anxiolytic drug use (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.51-2.15), and depression (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06-1.55). Negatively associated factors were age 85 years and older (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.92) and living alone (RR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64-0.89). The odds of potentially inappropriate medication use significantly increased with the number of associated factors (P<.001). Substantial differences in potentially inappropriate medication use exist between European countries and might be a consequence of different regulatory measures, clinical practices, or inequalities in socioeconomic background. Since financial resources and selected patient-related characteristics are associated with such prescribing, specific educational strategies and regulations should reflect these factors to improve prescribing quality in elderly individuals in Europe.
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              Potentially inappropriate prescribing and cost outcomes for older people: a national population study.

              Optimization of drug prescribing in older populations is a priority due to the significant clinical and economic costs of drug-related illness. This study aimed to: (i) estimate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in a national Irish older population using European specific explicit prescribing criteria; (ii) investigate the association between PIP, number of drug classes, gender and age and; (iii) establish the total cost of PIP. This was a retrospective national population study (n= 338 801) using the Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Service (HSE-PCRS) pharmacy claims database. The HSE-PCRS uses the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system and details of every drug dispensed and claimants' demographic data are available. Thirty PIP indicators (STOPP) were applied to prescription claims for those >or=70 years in Ireland in 2007. STOPP is a physiological system based screening tool of older persons' potentially inappropriate prescriptions assessing drug-drug and drug-disease interactions, dose and duration. In our study population PIP prevalence was 36% (121 454 claimants). The main contributors to this were: 56 560 (17%) prescribed proton pump inhibitors at maximum therapeutic dose for >8 weeks, 29 691 (9%) prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatories for >3 months, 17 676 (5%) prescribed long-acting benzodiazepines for >1 month and 16 201 (5%) prescribed duplicate drugs. The main determinant of PIP was polypharmacy. The likelihood of PIP increased with a significant linear and quadratic trend (P or=70 years in 2007. The findings identify a high prevalence of PIP in Ireland with significant cost consequences.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                04 September 2018
                : 14
                : 1591-1597
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, r.abdulah@ 123456unpad.ac.id
                [2 ]Department of Biological Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Rizky Abdulah, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM. 21, Jatinangor, Bandung 45363, Indonesia, Tel/fax +62 22 779 6200, Email r.abdulah@ 123456unpad.ac.id
                Article
                tcrm-14-1591
                10.2147/TCRM.S170475
                6129028
                © 2018 Abdulah et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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