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      Social incentives for gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiations: Sometimes it does hurt to ask

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      Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

      Elsevier BV

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          Prescriptive Gender Stereotypes and Backlash Toward Agentic Women

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            Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: a meta-analysis comparing women and men.

            A meta-analysis of 45 studies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles found that female leaders were more transformational than male leaders and also engaged in more of the contingent reward behaviors that are a component of transactional leadership. Male leaders were generally more likely to manifest the other aspects of transactional leadership (active and passive management by exception) and laissez-faire leadership. Although these differences between male and female leaders were small, the implications of these findings are encouraging for female leadership because other research has established that all of the aspects of leadership style on which women exceeded men relate positively to leaders' effectiveness whereas all of the aspects on which men exceeded women have negative or null relations to effectiveness.
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              Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: the costs and benefits of counterstereotypical impression management.

              Three experiments tested and extended recent theory regarding motivational influences on impression formation (S. T. Fiske & S. L. Neuberg, 1990; J. L. Hilton & J. M. Darley, 1991) in the context of an impression management dilemma that women face: Self-promotion may be instrumental for managing a competent impression, yet women who self-promote may suffer social reprisals for violating gender prescriptions to be modest. Experiment 1 investigated the influence of perceivers' goals on processes that inhibit stereotypical thinking, and reactions to counterstereotypical behavior. Experiments 2-3 extended these findings by including male targets. For female targets, self-promotion led to higher competence ratings but incurred social attraction and hireability costs unless perceivers were outcome-dependent males. For male targets, self-effacement decreased competence and hireability ratings, though its effects on social attraction were inconsistent.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
                Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
                Elsevier BV
                07495978
                May 2007
                May 2007
                : 103
                : 1
                : 84-103
                Article
                10.1016/j.obhdp.2006.09.001
                033ddff8-1be0-4787-bc3a-1f636822a1b9
                © 2007

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