The objectives were to explore, among university students, the level of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, hesitancy, and resistancy and to determine the motivations and barriers, and the reasons that may change student vaccination decision making. An online observational cross-sectional study was conducted among students of a French university in January 2021 with questions about the intention to be vaccinated against COVID-19, the motivations and the barriers. The convenience sample included 3089 students, with a mean of age of 20.3 (SD = 1.9). To the question on the intention to vaccinate against the COVID-19, 58.0% of students reported that they would choose to have a vaccination, 17.0% reported that they would not and 25.0% were not sure. The main motivations for vaccine acceptance were “I don′t want to transmit COVID-19 to others”, the main barriers for vaccine resistance or hesitancy were “I prefer to wait until I have more experience with these new vaccines”. Age, female gender, being in first three years of study, studied sciences courses and neither sciences nor healthcare courses of study were significantly associated with a higher risk of vaccine hesitancy or resistancy. Self-estimated knowledge of conventional vaccines and COVID-19 vaccines, and confidence in efficiency and safety of conventional vaccination were associated with a lower risk of vaccine hesitancy or resistancy. It is relevant to disseminate evidence-based interventions to promote COVID-19 vaccine acceptability for college students, especially for the students in neither sciences nor healthcare courses of study, as college students will soon be eligible to receive a COVID-19 vaccine.