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      Diversity of trypanorhynch metacestodes in teleost fishes from coral reefs off eastern Australia and New Caledonia Translated title: Diversité des métacestodes de Trypanorhynques chez les téléostéens des récifs coralliens de l’est de l’Australie et de la Nouvelle-Calédonie

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          Abstract

          Trypanorhynch metacestodes were examined from teleosts from coral reefs in eastern Australia and from New Caledonia. From over 12,000 fishes examined, 33 named species of trypanorhynchs were recovered as well as three species of tentacularioids which are described but not named. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, including more than 100 new host records. Lacistorhynchoid and tentacularioid taxa predominated with fewer otobothrioid and gymnorhynchoids. Five species, Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Floriceps minacanthus, Pseudotobothrium dipsacum, Pseudolacistorhynchus heroniensis and Ps. shipleyi, were particularly common and exhibited low host specificity. Limited data suggested a higher diversity of larval trypanorhynchs in larger piscivorous fish families. Several fish families surveyed extensively (Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Gobiidae, Kyphosidae and Scaridae) yielded no trypanorhynch larvae. The overall similarity between the fauna of the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia was 45%. Where available, information on the adult stages in elasmobranchs has been included.

          Translated abstract

          Les métacestodes de Trypanorhynques de téléostéens des récifs coralliens de l’est de l’Australie et de Nouvelle-Calédonie ont été examinés. À partir de plus de 12000 poissons examinés, 33 espèces nommées de Trypanorhynques ont été collectées ainsi que trois espèces de Tentacularioidea qui sont décrites mais non nommées. Des listes hôtes-parasites et parasites-hôtes sont fournies, et incluent plus de 100 nouvelles mentions d’hôtes. Les taxa appartenant aux Lacistorhynchoidea et Tentacularioidea prédominaient et les Otobothrioidea et Gymnorhynchoidea étaient moins nombreux. Cinq espèces, Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Floriceps minacanthus, Pseudotobothrium dipsacum, Pseudolacistorhynchus heroniensis et Ps. shipleyi étaient particulièrement fréquentes et montraient une faible spécificité d’hôte. Des données limitées suggèrent une plus grande diversité de Trypanorhynques larvaires dans les familles de poissons piscivores de grande taille. Plusieurs familles de poissons étudiées intensivement (Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Gobiidae, Kyphosidae et Scaridae) n’avaient pas de larves de Trypanorhynques. La similitude globale entre les faunes de la Grande Barrière de Corail et de la Nouvelle-Calédonie était de 45 %. Des informations sur les stades adultes chez des élasmobranches ont été incluses quand disponibles.

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          Most cited references 12

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          The Diversity of Coral Reefs: What Are We Missing?

          Tropical reefs shelter one quarter to one third of all marine species but one third of the coral species that construct reefs are now at risk of extinction. Because traditional methods for assessing reef diversity are extremely time consuming, taxonomic expertise for many groups is lacking, and marine organisms are thought to be less vulnerable to extinction, most discussions of reef conservation focus on maintenance of ecosystem services rather than biodiversity loss. In this study involving the three major oceans with reef growth, we provide new biodiversity estimates based on quantitative sampling and DNA barcoding. We focus on crustaceans, which are the second most diverse group of marine metazoans. We show exceptionally high numbers of crustacean species associated with coral reefs relative to sampling effort (525 species from a combined, globally distributed sample area of 6.3 m2). The high prevalence of rare species (38% encountered only once), the low level of spatial overlap (81% found in only one locality) and the biogeographic patterns of diversity detected (Indo-West Pacific>Central Pacific>Caribbean) are consistent with results from traditional survey methods, making this approach a reliable and efficient method for assessing and monitoring biodiversity. The finding of such large numbers of species in a small total area suggests that coral reef diversity is seriously under-detected using traditional survey methods, and by implication, underestimated.
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            The terminology of larval cestodes or metacestodes.

             L. Chervy (2002)
            The terminology associated with the nomenclature of larval or metacestodes is reviewed as well as the various morphological and developmental characters used to define different types of larval cestodes. Based on a review of the literature, the key characters differentiating the types of larval cestodes are the presence of a primary lacuna and the invagination/retraction of the scolex. The presence of a cercomer and of a bladder-like enlargement of the larval cestode were considered to be useful secondary characteristics. Using these characters, six basic types of larval cestodes were identified: the procercoid, an alacunate form which cannot develop further until ingested by a second intermediate host; the plerocercus, an alacunate form with a retracted scolex; the plerocercoid, an alacunate form with an everted scolex; the merocercoid, an alacunate form with an invaginated scolex; the cysticercoid, a lacunate form with a retracted scolex; and the cysticercus, a lacunate form with an invaginated scolex. The diversity of larval types within the broad classifications of cysticercoid and cysticercus can be differentiated by the use of appropriate prefixes. Deficiencies in knowledge of specific types of larval cestodes are identified and further avenues of research are indicated.
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              An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish

              Background Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Results Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20–25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9–13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Conclusions Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that extinction of a coral reef fish species would eventually result in the coextinction of at least ten species of parasites.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2014
                18 November 2014
                : 21
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2014/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Veterinary Clinical Centre, University of Melbourne, Werribee Victoria 3030 Australia
                [2 ] Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum Cromwell Road London SW7 5BD United Kingdom
                [3 ] School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland Brisbane Queensland 4072 Australia
                [4 ] ISYEB, Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité (UMR7205 CNRS, EPHE, MNHN, UPMC), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle CP 51 55 rue Buffon 75231 Paris Cedex 05 France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: ibeve@ 123456unimelb.edu.au
                Article
                parasite140092 10.1051/parasite/2014060
                10.1051/parasite/2014060
                4234045
                25402635
                © I. Beveridge et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 19
                Categories
                Research Article

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