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      Serum Cross-Linked N-Terminal Telopeptide of Type I Collagen for Evaluation of Renal Osteodystrophy in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: Useful markers of bone resorption are needed for hemodialysis patients with renal osteodystrophy. This study investigated the use of a new immunoassay for cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen to assess bone changes in hemodialysis patients. Methods: Radial bone mineral density was examined in 178 hemodialysis patients at baseline and after 12 months. Serum levels of N-terminal telopeptide and other markers were measured. Results: The annual percent change of radial bone mineral density was negatively correlated with the levels of N-terminal telopeptide, intact osteocalcin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and intact parathyroid hormone. The annual percent change of radial bone mineral density showed a stronger correlation with N-terminal telopeptide levels than with the other markers, except for intact parathyroid hormone. Also, intact parathyroid hormone and N-terminal telopeptide levels showed a stronger correlation than that of either tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase or cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen with intact parathyroid hormone. Conclusion: Serum N-terminal telopeptide may be the most useful bone resorption marker in renal osteodystrophy and its use combined with bone formation markers may improve the management of this condition.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Bone histomorphometry: standardization of nomenclature, symbols, and units. Report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature Committee.

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            Bone acid phosphatase: tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a marker of osteoclast function.

             S. Minkin (1982)
            Organ cultures of newborn mouse calvaria were used to test the hypothesis that tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase might serve as a biochemical marker for osteoclast function. When bone resorption was stimulated in vitro with either parathyroid hormone or 1,25(OH)2D3, there was a significant increase in both tartrate-resistant and tartrate-sensitivity acid phosphatase activity in the medium relative to cultured controls. Tartrate-resistant activity was localized histochemically primarily over the osteoclast and appeared as three distinct activity bands when electrophoresed on polyacrylamide gels. The tartrate-sensitive activity was found primarily associated with bone cells other than the osteoclast using histochemical techniques, and was resolved into five bands on polyacrylamide gels. The results obtained from biochemical assays, histochemical observations, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggest that bone resorption in vitro results in the release of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase from osteoclasts and tartrate-sensitive acid phosphatase from other bone cells as well as osteoclasts. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatases of bone may be suitable biochemical probes for osteoclasts function, but it will be necessary to achieve further purification in order to develop analytical methods with sufficient sensitivity and specificity (e.g., immunochemical) to ensure precise localization and quantitation.
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              The collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K is unique among mammalian proteinases.

              Type I collagen fibers account for 90% of the organic matrix of bone. The degradation of this collagen is a major event during bone resorption, but its mechanism is unknown. A series of data obtained in biological models strongly suggests that the recently discovered cysteine proteinase cathepsin K plays a key role in bone resorption. Little is known, however, about the actual action of cathepsin K on type I collagen. Here, we show that the activity of cathepsin K alone is sufficient to dissolve completely insoluble collagen of adult human cortical bone. We found that the collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K is directed both outside the helical region of the molecule, i.e. the typical activity of cysteine proteinases, and at various sites inside the helical region, hitherto believed to resist all mammalian proteinases but the collagenases of the matrix metalloproteinase family and the neutrophil elastase. This property of cathepsin K is unique among mammalian proteinases and is reminiscent of bacterial collagenases. It is likely to be responsible for the key role of cathepsin K in bone resorption.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2005
                March 2005
                20 January 2005
                : 99
                : 3
                : c78-c85
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Hakuai Hospital, Kure; bDepartment of Molecular and Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, and cDepartment of Health Science, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Nakakoma, Japan
                Article
                83418 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;99:c78–c85
                10.1159/000083418
                15665550
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 27, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/83418
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                Original Paper

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