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      Differential Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Genotypes Exhibiting Resistance or Susceptibility to the Insect Herbivore, Plutella xylostella

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          A proteomic study was conducted to investigate physiological factors affecting feeding behaviour by larvae of the insect, Plutella xylostella, on herbivore-susceptible and herbivore-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana. The leaves of 162 recombinant inbred lines (Rils) were screened to detect genotypes upon which Plutella larvae fed least ( P. xylostella-resistant) or most ( P. xylostella-susceptible). 2D-PAGE revealed significant differences in the proteomes between the identified resistant and susceptible Rils. The proteomic results, together with detection of increased production of hydrogen peroxide in resistant Rils, suggest a correlation between P. xylostella resistance and the production of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular H 2O 2, and that this was expressed prior to herbivory. Many of the proteins that were more abundant in the Plutella-resistant Rils are known in other biological systems to be involved in limiting ROS damage. Such proteins included carbonic anhydrases, malate dehydrogenases, glutathione S-transferases, isocitrate dehydrogenase-like protein (R1), and lipoamide dehydrogenase. In addition, patterns of germin-like protein 3 isoforms could also be indicative of higher levels of reactive oxygen species in the resistant Rils. Consistent with the occurrence of greater oxidative stress in the resistant Rils is the observation of greater abundance in susceptible Rils of polypeptides of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex, which are known to be damaged under oxidative stress. The combined results suggest that enhanced production of ROS may be a major pre-existing mechanism of Plutella resistance in Arabidopsis, but definitive corroboration of this requires much further work.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Improved staining of proteins in polyacrylamide gels including isoelectric focusing gels with clear background at nanogram sensitivity using Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 and R-250.

          An improved procedure for staining of proteins following separation in polyacrylamide gels is described which utilizes the colloidal properties of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 and R-250. The new method is based on addition of 20% v/v methanol and higher concentrations of ammonium sulfate to the staining solution previously described. The method combines the advantage of much shorter staining time with high sensitivity, a clear background not requiring destaining, stepwise staining, and stable fixation after staining. The method has been applied to staining of polyacrylamide gels after sodium dodecyl sulfate-electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing in carrier ampholyte-generated pH gradients.
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            Resistance gene-dependent plant defense responses.

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              Transcriptomic footprints disclose specificity of reactive oxygen species signaling in Arabidopsis.

              Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key players in the regulation of plant development, stress responses, and programmed cell death. Previous studies indicated that depending on the type of ROS (hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, or singlet oxygen) or its subcellular production site (plastidic, cytosolic, peroxisomal, or apoplastic), a different physiological, biochemical, and molecular response is provoked. We used transcriptome data generated from ROS-related microarray experiments to assess the specificity of ROS-driven transcript expression. Data sets obtained by exogenous application of oxidative stress-causing agents (methyl viologen, Alternaria alternata toxin, 3-aminotriazole, and ozone) and from a mutant (fluorescent) and transgenic plants, in which the activity of an individual antioxidant enzyme was perturbed (catalase, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase, and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase), were compared. In total, the abundance of nearly 26,000 transcripts of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was monitored in response to different ROS. Overall, 8,056, 5,312, and 3,925 transcripts showed at least a 3-, 4-, or 5-fold change in expression, respectively. In addition to marker transcripts that were specifically regulated by hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, or singlet oxygen, several transcripts were identified as general oxidative stress response markers because their steady-state levels were at least 5-fold elevated in most experiments. We also assessed the expression characteristics of all annotated transcription factors and inferred new candidate regulatory transcripts that could be responsible for orchestrating the specific transcriptomic signatures triggered by different ROS. Our analysis provides a framework that will assist future efforts to address the impact of ROS signals within environmental stress conditions and elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the oxidative stress response in plants.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                8 April 2010
                : 5
                : 4
                [1 ]School of Biological Sciences, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
                [2 ]Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
                Cairo University, Egypt
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: RMC SS HR BT. Performed the experiments: RMC MA DW MCP. Analyzed the data: RMC MA DW MCP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HR BT. Wrote the paper: RMC SS HR BT.

                Collins et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Research Article
                Plant Biology/Plant Biochemistry and Physiology
                Plant Biology/Plant Genetics and Gene Expression
                Plant Biology/Plant-Biotic Interactions



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