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      Creating correct blur and its effect on accommodation

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          Abstract

          Blur occurs naturally when the eye is focused at one distance and an object is presented at another distance. Computer-graphics engineers and vision scientists often wish to create display images that reproduce such depth-dependent blur, but their methods are incorrect for that purpose. They take into account the scene geometry, pupil size, and focal distances, but do not properly take into account the optical aberrations of the human eye. We developed a method that, by incorporating the viewer's optics, yields displayed images that produce retinal images close to the ones that occur in natural viewing. We concentrated on the effects of defocus, chromatic aberration, astigmatism, and spherical aberration and evaluated their effectiveness by conducting experiments in which we attempted to drive the eye's focusing response (accommodation) through the rendering of these aberrations. We found that accommodation is not driven at all by conventional rendering methods, but that it is driven surprisingly quickly and accurately by our method with defocus and chromatic aberration incorporated. We found some effect of astigmatism but none of spherical aberration. We discuss how the rendering approach can be used in vision science experiments and in the development of ophthalmic/optometric devices and augmented- and virtual-reality displays.

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          Vergence-accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue.

          Three-dimensional (3D) displays have become important for many applications including vision research, operation of remote devices, medical imaging, surgical training, scientific visualization, virtual prototyping, and more. In many of these applications, it is important for the graphic image to create a faithful impression of the 3D structure of the portrayed object or scene. Unfortunately, 3D displays often yield distortions in perceived 3D structure compared with the percepts of the real scenes the displays depict. A likely cause of such distortions is the fact that computer displays present images on one surface. Thus, focus cues-accommodation and blur in the retinal image-specify the depth of the display rather than the depths in the depicted scene. Additionally, the uncoupling of vergence and accommodation required by 3D displays frequently reduces one's ability to fuse the binocular stimulus and causes discomfort and fatigue for the viewer. We have developed a novel 3D display that presents focus cues that are correct or nearly correct for the depicted scene. We used this display to evaluate the influence of focus cues on perceptual distortions, fusion failures, and fatigue. We show that when focus cues are correct or nearly correct, (1) the time required to identify a stereoscopic stimulus is reduced, (2) stereoacuity in a time-limited task is increased, (3) distortions in perceived depth are reduced, and (4) viewer fatigue and discomfort are reduced. We discuss the implications of this work for vision research and the design and use of displays.
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            Color in the cortex: single- and double-opponent cells.

            This is a review of the research during the past 25years on cortical processing of color signals. At the beginning of the period the modular view of cortical processing predominated. However, at present an alternative view, that color and form are linked inextricably in visual cortical processing, is more persuasive than it seemed in 1985. Also, the role of the primary visual cortex, V1, in color processing now seems much larger than it did in 1985. The re-evaluation of the important role of V1 in color vision was caused in part by investigations of human V1 responses to color, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI, and in part by the results of numerous studies of single-unit neurophysiology in non-human primates. The neurophysiological results have highlighted the importance of double-opponent cells in V1. Another new concept is population coding of hue, saturation, and brightness in cortical neuronal population activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in an adult inner city population.

              To estimate the prevalence of refractive errors among adult black and white Americans and to identify risk factors associated with these refractive errors. Refractive error was measured in a population-based sample of black and white adults age 40 or older residing in east Baltimore from 1985 through 1988. Aphakic eyes were excluded from analysis. The prevalence of myopia varied from 10.5% among black men 80 years and older to 42.1% among white women 40 to 49 years of age. Hyperopia ranged from 11.8% among black men 40 to 49 years to 68.1% among white men 80 years of age and older. Astigmatism ranged from 15.8% to 45.2%, and anisometropia ranged from 2.8% to 8.1%, depending on age, race, and gender. Black persons had less myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia than did white persons. Myopia ( +0.5 D), astigmatism (> 0.5 D of cylinder), and anisometropia (> 1.0 D between eyes) increased with age. Myopia increased with increasing years of education, although this association was stronger for white persons than for black persons and among younger subjects. Hyperopia declined with increasing years of education, and this association was stronger among younger than older subjects. Education was not associated with astigmatism or anisometropia. Black persons had lower rates of refractive error than did white persons, except for hyperopia prevalence, which was comparable in black and white women. Refractive errors are common among adult inner city Americans, but rates vary substantially by age, race, gender, and education levels.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Vis
                J Vis
                jovi
                J Vis
                JOVI
                Journal of Vision
                The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
                1534-7362
                2018
                4 September 2018
                : 18
                : 9
                : 1
                Affiliations
                steven.cholewiak@ 123456berkeley.edu

                http://steven.cholewiak.com
                g.d.love@ 123456durham.ac.uk

                https://www.dur.ac.uk/computer.science/staff/profile/?id=246
                martybanks@ 123456berkeley.edu

                http://bankslab.berkeley.edu
                [1]Optometry & Vision Science, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
                [2]Computer Science & Physics, Durham University, Durham, UK
                [3]Optometry & Vision Science, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
                Article
                jovi-18-08-07 JOV-06169-2018
                10.1167/18.9.1
                6126933
                30193343
                03612817-7ef3-4e98-882a-f5be9e200d0f
                Copyright 2018 The Authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 23 March 2018
                : 14 July 2018
                Categories
                Article

                chromatic aberration,accommodation,vergence-accommodation conflict,head-mounted displays,lca

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