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      Seven-day Green Tea Supplementation Revamps Gut Microbiome and Caecum/Skin Metabolome in Mice from Stress

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          Abstract

          Green tea supplementation has beneficial health effects. However, its underlying mechanisms, such as effects on modulating the intestinal microbiome and endogenous metabolome, particularly following short-term supplementation, are largely unclear. We conducted an integrative metabolomics study to evaluate the effects of short-term (7-day) supplementation of green tea extract (GTE) or its components, epigallocatechin gallate, caffeine, and theanine, on the caecum microbiota and caecum/skin metabolome in mice. Further, we established an integrative metabolome-microbiome model for correlating gut and skin findings. The effects of short-term supplementation with dietary compounds were evaluated with respect to UV stress response, with GTE showing the most remarkable effects. Biplot analysis revealed that Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus spp. were considerably influenced by short-term GTE supplementation, while Clostridium butyricum was significantly increased by UV stress without supplementation. GTE supplementation helped the skin metabolome defend against UV stress. Interestingly, a significant positive correlation was observed between caecum bacteria (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus spp.) and metabolites including skin barrier function-related skin metabolites, caecal fatty acids, and caecal amino acids. Overall, 7-day GTE supplementation was sufficient to alter the gut microbiota and endogenous caecum/skin metabolome, with positive effects on UV stress response, providing insight into the mechanism of the prebiotic effects of GTE supplementation.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Low diversity of the gut microbiota in infants with atopic eczema.

          It is debated whether a low total diversity of the gut microbiota in early childhood is more important than an altered prevalence of particular bacterial species for the increasing incidence of allergic disease. The advent of powerful, cultivation-free molecular methods makes it possible to characterize the total microbiome down to the genus level in large cohorts. We sought to assess microbial diversity and characterize the dominant bacteria in stool during the first year of life in relation to atopic eczema development. Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed with barcoded 16S rDNA 454-pyrosequencing in stool samples at 1 week, 1 month, and 12 months of age in 20 infants with IgE-associated eczema and 20 infants without any allergic manifestation until 2 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01285830). Infants with IgE-associated eczema had a lower diversity of the total microbiota at 1 month (P = .004) and a lower diversity of the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes and the genus Bacteroides at 1 month (P = .02 and P = .01) and the phylum Proteobacteria at 12 months of age (P = .02). The microbiota was less uniform at 1 month than at 12 months of age, with a high interindividual variability. At 12 months, when the microbiota had stabilized, Proteobacteria, comprising gram-negative organisms, were more abundant in infants without allergic manifestation (Empirical Analysis of Digital Gene Expression in R [edgeR] test: P = .008, q = 0.02). Low intestinal microbial diversity during the first month of life was associated with subsequent atopic eczema. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Ultraviolet light induced injury: immunological and inflammatory effects.

            This article reviews many of the complex events that occur after cutaneous ultraviolet (UV) exposure. The inflammatory changes of acute exposure of the skin include erythema (sunburn), the production of inflammatory mediators, alteration of vascular responses and an inflammatory cell infiltrate. Damage to proteins and DNA accumulates within skin cells and characteristic morphological changes occur in keratinocytes and other skin cells. When a cell becomes damaged irreparably by UV exposure, cell death follows via apoptotic mechanisms. Alterations in cutaneous and systemic immunity occur as a result of the UV-induced inflammation and damage, including changes in the production of cytokines by keratinocytes and other skin-associated cells, alteration of adhesion molecule expression and the loss of APC function within the skin. These changes lead to the generation of suppressor T cells, the induction of antigen-specific immunosuppression and a lowering of cell-mediated immunity. These events impair the immune system's capacity to reject highly antigenic skin cancers. This review gives an overview of the acute inflammatory and immunological events associated with cutaneous UV exposure, which are important to consider before dealing with the complex interactions that occur with chronic UV exposure, leading to photocarcinogenesis.
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              Arsenic Exposure Perturbs the Gut Microbiome and Its Metabolic Profile in Mice: An Integrated Metagenomics and Metabolomics Analysis

              Background: The human intestine is host to an enormously complex, diverse, and vast microbial community—the gut microbiota. The gut microbiome plays a profound role in metabolic processing, energy production, immune and cognitive development, epithelial homeostasis, and so forth. However, the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome can be readily affected by external factors, which raises the possibility that exposure to toxic environmental chemicals leads to gut microbiome alteration, or dysbiosis. Arsenic exposure affects large human populations worldwide and has been linked to a number of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. Objectives: We investigated the impact of arsenic exposure on the gut microbiome composition and its metabolic profiles. Methods: We used an integrated approach combining 16S rRNA gene sequencing and mass spectrometry–based metabolomics profiling to examine the functional impact of arsenic exposure on the gut microbiome. Results: 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that arsenic significantly perturbed the gut microbiome composition in C57BL/6 mice after exposure to 10 ppm arsenic for 4 weeks in drinking water. Moreover, metabolomics profiling revealed a concurrent effect, with a number of gut microflora–related metabolites being perturbed in multiple biological matrices. Conclusions: Arsenic exposure not only alters the gut microbiome community at the abundance level but also substantially disturbs its metabolic profiles at the function level. These findings may provide novel insights regarding perturbations of the gut microbiome and its functions as a potential new mechanism by which arsenic exposure leads to or exacerbates human diseases. Citation: Lu K, Abo RP, Schlieper KA, Graffam ME, Levine S, Wishnok JS, Swenberg JA, Tannenbaum SR, Fox JG. 2014. Arsenic exposure perturbs the gut microbiome and its metabolic profile in mice: an integrated metagenomics and metabolomics analysis. Environ Health Perspect 122:284–291; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307429
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jshwang@khu.ac.kr
                chlee123@konkuk.ac.kr
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                5 December 2019
                5 December 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0532 8339, GRID grid.258676.8, Department of Systems Biotechnology, , Konkuk University, ; Seoul, 05029 Republic of Korea
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2171 7818, GRID grid.289247.2, Department of Genetic Engineering & Graduate School of Biotechnology, , Kyung Hee University, ; Yongin, 17104 Republic of Korea
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0647 2543, GRID grid.411957.f, Graduate School of Advanced Green Energy and Environment, , Handong Global University, ; Pohang, 37554 Republic of Korea
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0532 8339, GRID grid.258676.8, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, , Konkuk University, ; Seoul, 05029 Republic of Korea
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0532 8339, GRID grid.258676.8, Research Institute for Bioactive-Metabolome Network, , Konkuk University, ; Seoul, 05029 Korea
                Article
                54808
                10.1038/s41598-019-54808-5
                6895175
                31804534
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100003725, National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF);
                Award ID: 2016M3A9A5923160
                Award ID: 2018M3A9F3021968
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2019

                Uncategorized

                metabolomics, small molecules

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