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      Evaluación de la actividad tóxica de los insecticidas piretroides deltametrina y lambdacihalotrina en dos poblaciones de campo de Rhodnius pallescens (Hemíptera: Reduviidae) de Panamá Translated title: Evaluation of the toxic activity of the pyrethroid insecticides deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin in two Panamanian field populations of Rhodnius pallescens (Hemíptera: Reduviidae)

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          Abstract

          Introducción. La evaluación de la sensibilidad de las poblaciones de Rhodnius pallescens permite detectar y vigilar los grados de resistencia en el transcurso del tiempo, con el fin de evaluar los efectos de las estrategias de control y manejo de la resistencia. Objetivo. Determinar la línea base de sensibilidad de los principios activos deltametrina y lambdacihalotrina en ninfas de estadios I y V, en dos poblaciones de campo de R. pallescens. Materiales y métodos. Los bioensayos se realizaron tomando como referencia el protocolo estandarizado de aplicación tópica para R. prolixus y adaptado para R. pallescens. Resultados. Con la aplicación tópica del insecticida lambdacihalotrina en ninfas de estadio I en R. pallescens (Chilibre) y R. pallescens (Cerro Cama), los valores de la dosis letal 50 (DL50) expresados en nanogramos por insecto fueron de DL50=0,129 y DL50=0,109, respectivamente. En ninfas de estadio V los valores fueron de DL50=1,712 y DL50=3,478, respectivamente. Por su parte, la aplicación tópica de deltametrina en ninfas de estadio I, registró valores de DL50=0,022 y DL50=0,021 y, en ninfas de estadio V, de DL50=2,110 y DL50=1,548. Conclusiones. En ninfas de estadios I y V de ambas poblaciones de R. pallescens, se observó mediante los valores obtenidos de factor de resistencia que no existen ninguna diferencia significativa en el efecto tóxico de los insecticidas estudiados. Esto permite establecer que las dos cepas de R. pallescens son sensibles a los insecticidas deltametrina y lambdacihalotrina.

          Translated abstract

          Introduction. Systematic evaluation of the susceptibility of disease vectors to insecticides permits the detection of the development of insecticide resistance over time. This is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of control methods and to plan management strategies of the resistance. Objective. The baseline susceptibility was determined for I and V instar nymphs of Rhodnius pallescens to the active ingredients of the insecticides deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin. Materials and methods. The bioassays were applied to two field populations of R. pallescens collected in Chilibre and Cerro Cama, Panamá. A standard protocol for topical application was adapted from that developed for Rhodnius prolixus. Bioassays were performed using topical applications on the dorsal abdominal surface, with volumes of 0.1µl and 0.5µl acetone solution of insecticide for nymphs of stage I and V respectively, using 5µl and 25µl Hamilton microsyringes with a repeating dispenser. Ten nymphs were used for each insecticide concentration. Results. With the topical application of lambdacyhalothrin onfirst-instar nymphs from Chilibre and Cerro Cama, the LD50 values expressed in ng/insect were 0.13 and 0.11 respectively. In fifth-instar nymphs the LD50 values were 1.71 and 3.48, respectively. For deltamethrin, the topical application on first-instar nymphs resulted in LD50 values of 0.02 and 0.02, and in fifth-instar nymphs the LD50 values were 2.11 and 1.55, respectively. Conclusions. In I and V instar nymphs from the two R. pallescens populations, resistance factor values demonstrated no significant difference in the toxic effects of the two insecticides and indicated that the R. pallescens populations were susceptible them.

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          High resistance to pyrethroid insecticides associated with ineffective field treatments in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Northern Argentina.

          Field populations of Triatoma infestans Klug were collected during 2002 from four villages in northern Argentina (El Chorro, La Toma, El Sauzal, and Salvador Mazza), after application of deltamethrin and other pyrethroids was ineffective. High levels of resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, beta-cyfluthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin were detected in all of the evaluated populations. The resistance ratio to pyrethroids determined by topical application ranged from 50.5 (deltamethrin, El Sauzal) to 667.6 (beta-cyfluthrin, Salvador Mazza). None of the pyrethroid-resistant insects was resistant to the organophosphorus insecticide fenitrothion. Topical application of piperonyl butoxide to the most deltamethrin-resistant population (Salvador Mazza) led to slight reduction in levels of resistance. Activity of P450 monooxygenase, measured in individual insects through ethoxycoumarine-O-deethylase, showed a slight but noticeable difference in the distribution of activities between susceptible and resistant populations. The total percentage of insects below 0.48 pmol of 7-OH coumarine/min/ insect was 36.4 for Salvador Mazza population and 64.3 pmol of 7-OH coumarine/min/insect for CIPEIN strain. Whereas a low level of resistance to deltamethrin was previously related to monooxygenase activity in T. infestans, the high levels of resistance shown by these populations seem to involve monooxygenase in combination with other resistance mechanisms, for example, insensitivity of nervous membrane. Research on T. infestans resistance is in progress to improve Chagas vector control programs in Latin America and to implement resistance management strategies.
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            Insecticide resistance in Brazilian Triatoma infestans and Venezuelan Rhodnius prolixus.

            Resistance levels to insecticides used in control of Chagas Disease vectors were assessed in two species of bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Triatoma infestans (Klug) from Brazil and Rhodnius prolixus Stål from Venezuela. The resistance ratios, compared to susceptible laboratory strains, were determined by topical application bioassays. The T. infestans PA strain exhibited resistance ratios of 7x to deltamethrin, 3.6x to beta-cyfluthrin and 3.3x to cypermethrin, but was susceptible to beta-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. Rhodnius prolixus CA strain showed resistance to all the pyrethroids evaluated, the resistance ratios ranging between 4.5x to lambda-cyhalothrin and 12.4x to cypermethrin. Deltamethrin resistance in both strains was decreased by piperonyl butoxide, suggesting oxidative metabolism as cause of resistance.
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              The evolution of Chagas disease (American Trypanosomiasis) control after 90 years since Carlos Chagas discovery

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                bio
                Biomédica
                Biomed.
                Instituto Nacional de Salud (Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia )
                0120-4157
                2590-7379
                March 2011
                : 31
                : 1
                : 8-14
                Affiliations
                República de Panamá orgnameInstituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudios de la Salud, Panamá orgdiv1Sección de Parasitología
                República de Panamá orgnameInstituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudios de la Salud orgdiv1Sección de Entomología Médica
                Article
                S0120-41572011000100002 S0120-4157(11)03100102

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 7
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